Elements of the Research Proposal

A research proposal is written to propose a project generally in science or academics and sometimes requests sponsorship. It can be solicited or unsolicited. Solicited research proposal means that you are submitting a proposal as a response with specified requirements such as Request for Proposal (RFP) while unsolicited research proposal is submitted without prior request. An academic research proposal usually written as part of the initial requirements of writing a thesis, research paper or dissertation. Below are some of the elements of the research paper.

• Introduction
It will provides background information about the proposed research. It should create reader’s interest and reach out for specific audience.

• Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework is written to hold or support a theory of a research since it introduces and describes the theory which explains why the research problem is under study.

• Statement of the Problem
It identifies and describes the problem being solved. It contains the general analysis approach. It answers the question, “Why does this research need to be conducted?”

• Purpose of the Study
It should provide specific and accurate summary of the overall purpose of the study.

• Review of the Literature
It contains the background and context of the research. It provides outline for establishing the significance of the study and a benchmark for comparing the results of the study with other findings. The writer shares the results of the other studies that are closely related to the study being proposed.

• Hypothesis or Questions
Hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two variables.

• Methods/Procedure/Design
It considers the heart of the research because it describes all the activities in order to perform the proposed study including the methods as well the procedures and design to be used in the study.

• Sampling
Sampling is used to measure the validity of the research.

• Instrumentation
It contains the instruments to be used such as surveys, scales, interview, protocols, observation grid, and so on.

• Data Collection
It provides the plans on how to collect data such as survey, administration procedures, and interview or observation procedures.

• Date Analysis
It specify the procedures you will use, and label them accurately like for instance ANOVA, MANCOVA, HLM, ethnology, case study, grounded theory.

• Limitation and Delimitations
A limitation will identifies potential weaknesses of the study while the delimitation reports on how the study will be narrowed in scope.

• Significance of the Study
It provides about the significance of the study such as how the study will benefit or impacts others.

• References
It provides references used in the study

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What is Research Proposal

A research proposal is written to propose a research project generally in the science and academic purposes. It is usually written by a scientist or academic which describes the ideas for an investigation on a particular subject or topic.

One purpose of writing a research proposal is to show that the problem you propose is warrant for investigation such as the method you plan is feasible and the result of your study are prove to be fruitful and can be an original contribution.

Writing research proposal requires a lot of time so it is very important that your topic is interesting and you are familiar with your topic.  A writer will spend a lot of time for researching from different sources for his research proposal.  Make sure that there is sufficient preliminary reading or research in the area of interest.

Here are sample research proposal outline:

I.    Title Page
It contains the proposal title and researcher’s name.

II.    Summary
It includes synopsis of the rationale for the proposed research, statement of the problem, aims and objectives, the methods or approaches used and significance of the proposal.

III.    Specific Aims
It explains the aims of the proposed research proposal.

IV.    Background and Significance of the Study
It provides the background of the study as well as the details for the significance of the study.

V.    Preliminary Data
It contains the information or data obtain based on the research or experiments done by the researchers. It can includes figures, graphs or illustrations.

VI.    Experimental Design or Method
It provides the experimental design or method used for the study.

VII.    References
It includes the list of references used.

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Writing Research Proposal

Research proposal is written to provide a detailed description of the proposed project.  It serves as an outline of the entire research process that will gives a reader a summary of the information discussed in a project.  Also, it is written to request a budget for the research or as requirement in tertiary education

The following are some components of Research Proposal:

  • Title.  It should provide the key ideas and gives a glimpse of your research.
  • Abstract. It includes a concise statement of your research. It consists of no more than 100 words. It describes the problems you will intend to solve.
  • Research Background. It includes the overview of your study.  It also provides the summarize of your proposal.
  • Research Question.  These questions will guide your research. You should take time to reflect on the main questions that you are seeking to answer before writing your proposal.  The main questions are good way to narrow down your topic and make it feasible.  Your proposal should explain your approach in answering those questions.
  • Research Methods. It includes the research method that you will be using. It outlines these research methods and explains how you will be able to conduct your research.
  •  Significance of Research. It explains why your research is important.  Your proposal must demonstrate the originality of your research. It should explain how your research will benefits or impact others.
  • Bibliography. It contains a short bibliography which identifies the most relevant works for your research.

 

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Research Proposal Writing

research proposalResearch proposal is written for different reasons including requesting budget, academic requirement, thesis requirement, and business necessity or as business recommendation for profit, certification requirements for research and employment obligation. It should provide a description of the proposed project or program.  It serves as a summary of information included in the project. One should avoid broad topic areas that would be unmanageable and ambiguous descriptions of research area.

The following is a sample format of a research proposal:

 

  •  Title – it should be concise.
  • Abstract – it contains a summary of your research including the data collection methods and analysis as well as expected results or possible outcomes.
  • Problem Statement – it includes the problem you want to address.
  • Background of the Problem – it details the problems you are trying to solve using your proposed research or project.
  • Research Design or Research Methodology – it provides the method use in data collection and identifies the type of data to collect and justified it.  You should specify the approach being used in your data collection.
  • Expected Results – it shows how the data is analyzed and the expected results from your research.
  • References or Bibliography – it provides the sources of data and information in your research.

 

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Research Proposal

Research proposal is a written document which provides detailed information about the proposed program. It is addressed a particular topic or issue like academic or scientific issue. Some research proposal

Your research proposal should convince your audience that you have a valuable and useful project and you have the capability to complete it. It should contain all key information involved in the research process as well as enough data for the audience or reader to evaluate your proposed study.

One of the difficult tasks in the beginning is to choose a topic.  Of course, to choose a topic, it should be interested to you. Choose a topic that you want to study and turn it into question.  Make sure also that you have enough resources of information about your chosen topic.

The elements or parts of a research proposal includes introduction, statement of the problem, purpose of the problem, study question and hypothesis, significance of the study, definition of terms, and limitation of the study.  Also, it should have related literature review and methodology. In methodology, you can include the samples, instruments, procedure and designs and statistics procedure.

Other format of research proposal includes abstract, problem statement, background of the problem, research design, expected results, and references.  Format or elements of research proposal is always depends on you on what is your research all about and the reason of writing the research proposal.

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What is Research Proposal

Research proposal is showing the problem intended to solve and investigate.   It should be significant enough to deserve the investigation and the method to be used should be suitable and feasible, while the results are prove to be fruitful and will create original contribution to person, company or society.  A good research proposal should be impresses or proves to your thesis committee that you have potential as a researcher and your research proposal should promises success for the project.

A research proposal should contain sufficient information to evaluate the proposed study by your reader.  It should have a key elements involves in the research process. Research proposal should answer the question, What plan to accomplish, why want to do it and how do it. It should contain title, abstract, introduction, literature review, methods and results.

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Research Methodology, Problem Conceptualization and Theoretical Framework

Research Methodology

  • A set of strategies in the execution of the various tasks related to a research;
  • Includes the proper conceptualization of the research problem, organization of theoretical or conceptual framework, the construction of a research design, and documentation.

Problem Conceptualization
•    Scenario building
– The broad concern related to the research problem is completely but briefly discussed.
•    Problem analysis
– The problem(s) related to the study are identified and articulated clearly.
•    Project focusing
– The  objectives, scope and limitations of the research to be undertaken are clearly describe.

Organization of the Theoretical Framework

•    Includes facts from books and theories from journals and theses.
•    Shows the conceptual model of the study.
•    Includes the definition of terms.

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What is Research?

Research is an organized way of solving a problem or establishing the answer to a query. It is the manner by which the individual articulates the meaning of facts and data.

Research as a Process

Research is a cyclic process.

  • Research begins with an unanswered question in the mind of the researcher.
  • Research sees the goal in a clear statement of the problem.
  • Research  subdivides the problem into appropriate sub-problems.
  • Research poses tentative solutions to the problem(s) through appropriate hypotheses.
  • Research looks for the fact directed by the hypotheses and guided by the problem.
  • Research interprets the meaning of the facts which leads to the resolution of the problem.

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A Proposal for a 10 Year Guarantee of Termite Control in One Treatment

* This research proposal is prepared by Engr. Janet S. Crisostomo as school requirement

A. Introduction

For many years, concrete has been used as a construction material in building structures. However, the use of wood cannot be avoided for its countless variety of purposes such as ceilings, furniture, cabinet doors and windows. Though, the cost of wood is very high, its beauty and durability is a priceless thing. Its beauty though may just end up devastated due to termite invasion. These termites are extremely destructive because they tunnel their way to wooden structures, into which they burrow to obtain food. Given enough time, they will feed on the wood until nothing is left but a shell, which cause collapse or damage of the wooden structure of the house. Today, termite proofing and control has been widely used. This is done by injecting the solution by the use of soil injector at 12” interval along the perimeter of the building, and under the slab, sub-slab injector is used. Treatment is done until the queen termite is exterminated.

The use of the said method is not effective in most areas because different species of termites need different treatment method. Also for the fact that after the royal pair dies, nymphs at a particular stage in their molting cycle rapidly develop reproductive organs and become fertile. A similar process appears to operate n maintaining the required number of soldiers in the community. A new colony is then established by a male and female who become primary reproductive. The new colony will again enter the house and damage all wooden structure.

B. The Problem

What chemical solutions will double the effect of the ordinary solution (5-year guarantee) in controlling termites, for only one application?

C. Objectives

The aim of this research is to be able to produce a more effective chemical solution in controlling termites, which will double the guarantee of an ordinary method (5-year guarantee) used, ensuring a one-application treatment.

D. Importance of the Study

Through this study, the chemical solutions that will double the effect of the ordinary solution may be formulated. This will give a ten-year guarantee for the preservation of all wooden part of the structure.

E. Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Investigation may require the following:
1. Different species of termites.
2. Type of soil most termites exist.
3. Type of chemical to be formulated.
4. Treatment to be used.

F. Methods of Research to be Used

Methodology

1. Study all types of species of termites.

a. Knowing the mode and rate of reproduction in different species.
b. Determining the weaknesses of the termites.
c. Knowing the type of soil most termites exist.

2. Formulating the new solution.

Chemical needed:
Mafu – Knockdown power
Dursban – residue
Water

The ordinary solution gives a proportion of 1 liter Dursban: 1 liter Mafu: 100 liter water. To be able to double the effect of this solution, the new proportion will be doubled as such, 1 liter Dursban: 1 liter Mafu: 50 liter water.

3. Experimentation / Observation

Two specimens (timber) will be used. One, applying the ordinary solution and the other is the formulated solution.

Procedures:

  1. Place a timber 4 feet in length on a large pan.
  2. Put Highly destructive termites approximately 100 pieces on a timber. (Subterranean termite or Drywood termite can be used if Highly destructive termite is not available)
  3. Allowing it to feed on wood until almost 20% of wood is damage.
  4. Apply 2 liters of ordinary chemical solution all over the surface of the timber.
  5. Observe, and record the time when all termites die after the application of the solution.
  6. After a week, place another termite around the damaged timber. Observe if these termites can come near the timber.
  7. Observe and record the number of days the termites will enter into the damaged timber after application of the solution. This relates to the length of solution’s effect to the timber.
  8. Another timber is to be used applying the new solution. The same procedure is to be done in testing this solution with the same amount as the ordinary solution.
  9. Compare the length of effects of the two solutions to the timber. Compute the ratio of new solution and ordinary solution. If the computed ratio is more than or about two, then this makes doubling the effect of the new solution over the ordinary solution.

G. Schedule and Resources

1. Schedule : (Gantt Chart)

2. Personnel:

Researcher (1)
Entomologist (1)
Chemical Engineer (1)
Laboratory technician (2)
Driver (1)

3. Materials:

Different species of termites

Highly-destructive termites
Subterranean termites
Drywood termites
Other species

Timber (2 pcs.)

Chemicals

Mafu (1 liter)
Dursban (1 liter)
Water (50 liters)

4. Apparatus and Equipments:

Pans
Containers
Graduated cylinder (1000 ml)
Scalpels
Globes
Stirring rods

H. Budget

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