Review of Related Literature

Countries depended on imported fossils fuels, like the Philippines, feel the pinch caused by the rising cost of crude oil and petroleum excise duties.  Add to that, 70% of mineral oil deposits are located in politically unstable areas.

The mounting pressure from environment groups for cleaner air also gives more urgency for the concerned agencies look for ways to make alternative fuel commercially viable.  Especially since its raw materials could be locally sourced. Coconut bio-fuel advocates have stressed that coconut methyl este (CME) is the most viable as transport fuels compared to compressed natural gases and Alco diesel.

Coconut Methyl Ester is the most practical of the alternative fuels because is easy to make and easy to apply and is biogradable.  The use of fuel such as coconut methyl ester significantly stabilizes carbon dioxide emission and prevents its increase because carbon dioxide is locked into a closed circuit.  Since coconut methyl ester is plant origin, it produces carbon dioxide when it and it goes back to the plant, therefore, it has no global effects on global warming. Both the environment and health concerns will benefit because fuel blends with CME thereby, reducing particulate matters.  Thus the black exhaust gas that it emits can cause diseases.  It has been proven that plant base fuel when burned produces carbon neutral gas.

Air is the source we breathe.  Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live.  Air is 99.9 nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gas.  Human actions can release substances into the air thus causing harmful for humans, plants, and animals.  Several main kinds of pollution include acid rain, smog, the greenhouse effect and “holes” in the ozone layer.  Each of these harmful problems has serious implications to our health and the environment.  One kind of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy.  Diesel smoke is one of a good example of this particular matter.  The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about 0.0001 inches.  This kind of pollution is referred to as “black carbon” pollution.  The exhaust from – burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air.  The release of noxious gases is another type of air pollution, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SoX), Nitrogen Oxide (NoX),  Particulate matter (PM), and chemical vapors.  These can take chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere forming smog and acid rain.  Air pollution is also inside our homes, offices, and schools.  Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking.  In some countries like the United States, they spend about 80-90% of their time inside the buildings so exposure to indoor pollutants can seriously be harmful.

Air pollution can affect our health in many ways.  Human beings are affected by air pollution in different ways.  People are much more sensitive to pollutants.  Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution.  Individuals with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted.

This sample review of related literature is taken from the project proposal entitled,  “Comparative Analysis of Physico-Chemical Characteristics between 20% and 25% CME Blend by Volume on Bunker Fuel and the Effect of Exhaust Gas Emission” by: Kristian G. Barario, Rhio C. Dimakiling, Orley G. Fadriquel and Manuel Robles.

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