Project Feasibility on the Production of a Shoe Insole Deodorizer

Title:
Project Feasibility Study on the Production of a Shoe Insole Deodorizer using Activated Carbon and Baking Soda

Proposed Location:
Brgy Anupul, Bamban, Tarlac

Proponents:
Eda S. Castro
Ferdinand D. Constantino
Jane M. Delos Santos
Gian Carlo R. Sotelo
Divine Grace B. Tuazon

Degree:
Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering

School:

Tarlac State University

Date:
March 2003

Brief Description of the Project

This project proposes to produce a shoe insole deodorizer using activated carbon and baking soda as the active ingredients.  The product shall be branded as “POWER SOLE”.  It is a flat insole type deodorizer that can neutralize the odor and absorbs moisture on foot caused by sweating.  It can also serve as a shoe pad for loosed shoes.  The product has five (5) sizes (5,6,7,8 and 9) to cater different foot sizes it has also a suggested life span o one (1) month, but this will depend on the lifestyle of the person using it.

Summary of Findings:

1.    Management Aspects

The Power Sole Enterprises shall be a pre-operate for 12 months before its normal operations.  The enterprise shall be a partnership type of business organization.  The business shall employ its personnel, which shall be headed solely by the plant manager who shall supervise the production, administrative/finance, and marketing officers.  Under these officers are the production laborers, warehouse man, product inspector, accounting clerk, security guards and driver respectively.  All personnel shall come from the province of Tarlac.  Giving importance to the nearby towns where there are skilled workers in relation to this kind of work.  The compensation of the personnel shall be based on the existing labor code.  The enterprise shall pay Php 1,291,584.00 for its salaries/wages during the first year of operation.  Benefits such as SSS, EC and PhilHealth shall be given to the employees.  Every year of operation, the enterprise will hire one (1) additional production to meet the increasing demand of the product.

2.    Marketing Aspect

The marketability or salability of the proposed product is anticipated, since this project entails comfort, easy and convenient to use compared to existing foot deodorizer.  The demand of the product shall be based on the past demand of foot deodorant products consumed by each household population of Tarlac City’s urban barangays, and the supply shall be based on the number of foot deodorant purchased from several distributors/suppliers.  The market share of this product is 42.05% of the average yearly demand from 2003-2207, which is equivalent to 178,546 pairs of shoe insole deodorizer but considering the result of the survey conducted by the researchers, the researcher had decided to increase the average capacity of the plant from 178,546 to 1800,000 for the first year of operation.  The proposed selling of the product shall be Php 16.50 which is inclusive of value added tax (VAT).  The project will sell the proposed product in cash discount basis.  And limited its retail price to 20% increase from the set factory price to the retailer (distributor) to achieve the pricing objective of meeting the existing price competition in the market.  The Product shall be introduced and promoted through posters, billboards, banners and radio ads.

The proposed product shall be packed in a vacuum-sealed transparent plastic packaging material with a descriptive label, which contains features and specification of the product, and finally the packaged products are placed in a carbon box for protection in the storage and delivery.  The outer surface of the box is printed with the product name, the description or specifications, and the name and address of the manufacturer  The product shall bear the brand name “POWER SOLE”, which signifies the characteristic and nature of the product.

3.    Technical Aspect

The proposed product is a shoe insole deodorizer using activated carbon and baking soda.  The activated carbon is part of the product because it can absorb odors and volatile organic compounds.  We also have to add the treatment of the foam and cumbelli to help activated carbon to help activated carbon to neutralize the odor.  In this study, we conducted laboratory tests to determine the volatile content of activated carbon before and after used.  We found out in testing activated carbon, with the use of a gravimetric oven, that when it is not treated, only 3.423% of moisture will be absorbed by the carbon and 45.181% was absorbed by the carbon a exposed naked on the humid environment  When the researchers treated the carbon, they did not absorb moisture of 43.5  In conclusion, before the manufacture of the product, see to it that it was treated  An odor test was also conducted to determine the effectiveness and lifespan of the product.  Based on the test, the suggested lifespan of the product is one month.

The manufacturing process is a continuous processing wherein the workers must meet the target output per day.  The capacity depends on the expected market share of 42.05%, which us 278,546 pairs of shoe insole deodorizer  But the researchers decided to product 180,000 pairs in the year of operation due to the consideration of the result conducted by the researchers for the willingness of the respondents to try and buy the proposed product.

The plant will be producing an average of 180,000 pairs a year, that is 15,.000 pairs a month or 750 pairs a day.  Some nearby hardware and electronic suppliers supply machineries and equipment.  But other equipment will be purchased in Manila.  The plant shall be located at Brgy. Anupul, Bamban, Tarlac, the productivity center of the town.  It is located at the back of the Municipal Hall building which is 100 km. from Manila.  The transportation is so easy because it is along the highway.  The availability of manpower will never be a problem; customers will be assured of economical and fast delivery of the products due to the project proximity to the raw materials, suppliers, and to its target market.  The hiring of labor forces will not be a problem since the plant requires a minimal number of employees.  The Tarlac II Electric shall supply electricity and water requirements of the plant.  The productivity center has an area of 1,260 sq.m. half of the area will only be occupied.  The enterprises shall pay the monthly rentals of Php 20.00 per sq.m for the 630 sq.m floor area or at Php 12,600.00 monthly with escalation rate, payable within the first week of each month.

The waste material will be in the form of scraps, which will serve as another source of income for the enterprise.  The proposed project is environment friendly because it will not affect the nature during or after producing it.

4.    Financial Aspect

The financial needs of the project shall be sourced from the partners’ equity.  Each of the five (5) partners shall contribute an initial amount of Php 150,000.00 in cash which is Php 750,000.00 the said amount is estimated to be used in all expenses to be incurred during the pre-operating period and during the first half of the year of normal operations.  All purchases shall be on cash basis and sales are on cash discount basis with term payment of 5/15 net 30.  the projects liquidity ratios are computed to be 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, 12:1, and 15:1, on the first, second, third, fourth and fifth years, respectively, which shows that the project can liquidate its total current liabilities very satisfactorily.  The rates of return on investment for the first five years of normal operations are 16.32%, 30.81% and 39.35% respectively.

5.    Social Desirability Aspect

The project is aimed at helping individuals who have an unpleasant odor and foot moisture.  The business enterprise shall give a great contribution to the government because of the money paid in the form of taxes.  These taxes can be paid in different forms.  Through the introduction of this business, consumers will be given more choices for the same effect.  The producers of the raw materials can increase its profitability.  The competing products can also lower their process because of increased competitors.  Also there will be a decrease of unemployment by giving jobs to individuals when they will be hired, which will improve their lives and the society as a whole.

Feasibility Study of a Commercial Warehouse in Angeles City

General Aspects

1.1    Description of the Project
The warehouse project is described and the findings on the market, technical and financial aspects of the study are summarized.

1.2    Project Timetable
A brief statement on when the warehouse will become operational together with a timetable of pre-operating activities is indicated

1.3    Management of the Warehouse
The organization and staffing of the warehouse company are defined and quantified.  Procedures for inventory account-ability, receiving and shipping of goods are established.

Product and Market Aspects

2.1    Product
The products to be warehoused and marketed are identified together with corresponding producers.  Brands of producers with warehousing facilities in the area are excluded.

2.2    Trade Area
The producers are interviewed to attain data on the volume of production and distribution of each product to the region.

2.3    Competition
Competitors, data on products warehoused and marketed sales volume, and pricing are identified.

2.4    Projected Sales
The total demand and market share for each product over a ten-year period are projected on the basis of the following:

2.4.1    Population growth
2.4.2    Consumption per capita as affected by income growth
2.4.3    Competition

2.5    Marketing and Selling Prices
The marketing arrangement and selling price for each product are defined over a ten-year period.

2.5.1    Immediate purchase of goods upon delivery from producers
2.5.2    Immediate sale of goods on commission basis
2.5.3    Storage and sale of goods upon orders from producers, fixed charges for storage and commission on sales.
2.5.4    Combination of the preceding marketing methods

Technical Aspects

3.1 Location Factors
After the geographic location of the warehouse has been selected, the specific site must be determined.  Some of the factors that may influence the choice are as follows:

3.1.1 Topography
The site must be free from floods.

3.1.2 Accessibility
The site must be as near as possible to transportation lines.

3.1.3 Cost of Land

3.1.4 Land Use
The site should be compatible with warehousing regulations.  Proximity to residential areas should be avoided.

3.1.5 Security
The site should not be in areas known for the incidence of theft and vandalism

3.1.6 Building Code
The requirements of the building code must be considered, particularly with regard to the restriction on the height of the building.

3.1.7 Advertising
The exposure of the building to heavily traveled high ways adds on advertising value to the state or site.

3.2 Size and Layout of the Building
The specific considerations on the size and layout of the warehouse are as follows:

3.2.1 The size of the building is related to the projected sales over a ten-year period in general and to the occupancy rate in particular.

3.2.2 The width-length on figuration of the building affects the construction cost per square meter of floor area as well as the handling and storage operations  In principle, for optimum combination of construction cost and operating efficiency, a warehouse should be nearly a square

3.2.3 Height will be limited by local building restrictions and the need for safe and practical handling equipment.  Height is also a convenient and relatively economical means of providing storage capacity.

3.2.4 Location of rail and dock should consider factors such as protection from the weather, security aspects, proximity to storage areas and loss of storage space.  Docks may be located outside, inside or partially inside/outside the warehouse.

3.3 Equipment
The types and number of equipment for handling storing and shipping operations are determined.

Financial Aspects

4.1 Project Cost
4.1.1  property, plant and equipment
4.1.2 organizational and operating expenses
4.1.3 working capital

4.2 Sources of Financing
4.2.1 capital stock
4.2.2 long term borrowing
4.2.3 short term borrowing

4.3 Financial Projections and Notes and Assumptions
4.3.1 cost of sales
4.3.2 operating expenses
4.3.3 income
4.3.4 cash flow
4.3.5 balance sheets
4.3.6 capital expenditures (organizational and pre-operating expenses, building, machinery and equipment, office furniture)

4.4 Financial Analysis
4.4.1 discounted  cash flow rate of return on total investment
4.4.2 financial ratios (return on sales gross profit rate, return on assets, etc.)
4.2.3 break-even analysis

A Technical Proposal on the Construction of Pantabangan Dam

Approach

The Pantabangan Dam is proposed to be built seven kilometers upstream of Pampanga River from the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija.  It shall perform useful functions for the Hydroelectric Plant, Flood Control, Domestic and Industrial Water Supply, Aquatic Resources Conservation and Recreational Facilities. It also renders other functions, namely:

1.1    To demonstrate the most suitable water management to expand irrigated area
1.2    To adopt practical cropping pattern to increase production
1.3    To organize farmer and users into irrigation associations for better implementation of water distribution ; and
1.4    To serve as a training center for the job training of NIA personnel and farmers

Because majority of the irrigation systems in the Philippines use the run-river diversion types of supply water for rice crops, these systems depend primarily on the flow of water from the river and availability of water from the watershed.  The system is enough to supply the requirements of certain areas so that they do not find the necessity to have water management until problems arise such as sudden decrease in the flow of water because of the denudation of forest watersheds.

Other problems are after the rainy season when the flow of water from the river decreases sharply which affects the capacity of the systems for double cropping.

These situations create the problem of rice production to support the country’s rapidly expanding population.  To solve this problem, the Pantabangan Dam is proposed to be constructed, primarily as a good source of irrigation, and secondly, as a source of power generation.

Description of the Solution

With the help of the Development Bank of the Philippines, the National Irrigation Administration searched for areas with the best potentials.  In 1960 the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads (USBPR) was tapped to undertake feasibility studies on the development of the Pantabangan Dam which would prevent floods, conserve water for irrigation and generate power for a Hydroelectric Plant.

In 1961, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) referred to its Washington Office a cooperative project/proposal with the National Economic Development Authority to conduct a comprehensive study of Philippine water resources and identify projects of greatest potentials for development.

This recommendation led to the signing of the agreement on October 25, 1962 between the United States and Philippine governments regarding funding, assignments of consultants, and agency participation in the proposed undertaking.  On November 2 of the same year, the USAID jointly with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) agreed to push through the recommendations.  Consequently in April 1963, survey work and feasibility study started.

By 1966, engineers of the Bureau of Reclamation under contract with the NEC-USAID came out with the feasibility report identifying USBPR as having the greatest potential for development.  In 1968 of May, a joint technical staff was created by President Marcos to conduct further studies on the possibilities of reducing the cost estimated by USBR.

Resources

In June 1969, the Philippine Congress adopted R.A 5499 authorizing the construction of the Pantabangan Dam, its appurtenant structures and irrigation service facilities and providing local counterpart funds.  Subsequently, in August of the same year, the world bank approved a $34 M loan to finance the foreign exchange cost of the project.  The contract for its construction was awarded to Hydro Resources Corporation (CONSORTIUM of some Filipino Contractors).  In 1972, Presidential Decree No. 35 set aside a Guarantee Fund of Php720 M to ensure the completion of the project including the funding for the power function and execution of further studies to expand the project benefits.

Discussion

The Pantabangan Dam is about seven kilometers upstream of Pampanga River from the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija.  It consists of the two zoned earth full dams, the main dam and the ava dam embankment.  It measures 1.61 kilometers long, 107 meters high from the riverbed, 480 meters wide at the base and 12 meters wide at the crest.

The Pantabangan Dam is designed with two tunnels, 30 meters apart at the bottom of the main dam’s left abutment, each measuring 576 meters long and 7 meters in diameter.  Each has a design discharge of 1643 per second  One of the tunnels supplies the irrigation needs of the service area while the other is for the future generation of Hydro-electric Power.

A concrete chute type spill way with design discharge of 4,200 cubic meters per second is located at the end of the ava embankment.  It is 260 meters long and has four bays, three of which are gated, and the fourth, an overflow.

A connecting open channel sets across the ridge separating the main and ava reservoirs, at an elevation of 200 meters above sea level and measuring about 200 meters long and 60 meters wide.  It will divert the excess water from the main reservoir to the ava reservoir and to the spill way.

The Reservoir

The Pantabangan reservoir, consisting of the main and the auxiliary reservoir, submerges the town of Pantabangan and eight outlying barrios.  It has a surface area of 8,420 hectares and is capable of impounding 3.08 million cubic meters of water.

The allocation of the reservoir space is 330 million cubic meters of flood storage, 17,353 million cubic meters storage for irrigation and domestic water supply, ineffective storage of 95 million cubic meters and 668 million cubic meters surcharge.  The allowance for sedimentation is 130 million cubic meters.

Some 150,000 hectares of forest and range lands compose the watershed.

Hydroelectric Power

The Pantabangan Dam includes power generating units with the installed capacity of 100,000 kilowatts.  Two units of 50 megawatts generators which could be installed at the downstream of the dam would add more than 70,000 kilowatts of dependable capacity and generate some 232 million kilowatt hours of electric energy annually.

Cost Analysis

The dam is estimated to cost Php720M to ensure completion of the project including the funding for the power function and execution of further studies to expand the project benefits.

Time of Completion

The dam is estimated to be accomplished within 3 years and 5 months starting March 3, 1978 and is to be completed by August, 1981.

Internal Proposal – Proposal for Capital Appropriations

To:  Harold Clurman, Plant Superintendent

From: Fred Nelson, Safety Officer

Date: August 4, 1998

Subject: Safety Practices for Group 333

Many accidents and near-accidents have occurred in Group 333 because of the hazardous working conditions in this area.  This memorandum identifies those hazardous conditions and makes recommendations for their elimination.

Hazardous Conditions

Employees inside the factory must operate the walk-along crane through aisles that are frequently congested with scrap metal, discarded lumber, and other refuse from the shearing area.  Many surfaces in the area are oil-coated.

The containers for holding raw stock and scrap metal are also unsafe.  On many of the racks, the hooks are bent inward so far that the crane cannot fit into them properly unless it is banged and jiggled in a dangerous manner.  To add to the hazard, employees in the press group do not always balance the load in the racks.  As a result, the danger of falling metal is great as the unbalanced racks swing practically out of control overhead.  These hazards endanger employees in Group 333 and also employees in the raw-stock and shearing areas, because the crane passes over these areas.

Hazards also exist in the yard and in the chemical building.  The present method of dumping strip metal into the scrap bins is the most dangerous practice of all. To dump this metal, the tow-motor operator picks up a rack, with the rack straddling the tow-motor forks, and raises it over the edge of the scrap-metal bin.  The operator then rotates the forks to permit the scrap metal to fall from one end of the rack.  As the weight shifts, the upright frame at the other end of the rack slams into one of the tow-motor forks (now raised 12 feet above the ground, inside the scrap tub).  This method of operation has resulted in two tow-motor tip-overs in the past month.  In neither incident was the driver injured, but the odds are great that someone will be seriously harmed if the practice continues.

Group 333 employees must also dump tubs full of scrap metal from the tow motor into the 10-foot-high scrap bins.  In order to dump the metal on the tow-motor forks, the operator raises the tubs high above his head.  Because of the unpredictable way in which the metal falls from the tubs, many facial cuts and body bruises have resulted.  Employees who work in the yard are also subject to danger in winter weather:  all employees have been cut and bruised in falls that occurred as they were climbing up on scrap bins covered with snow and ice to dump scrap from pallets that had not been banded.

Finally, nearly all Group 333 employees who must handle the caustic chemicals in the chemical building report damaged clothing and ruined shoes.  Poor lighting in the building (the lights are nearly 20 feet above the floor), storage racks positioned less than two feet apart, and container caps incorrectly fastened have made these accidents impossible to prevent.

Recommendations

To eliminate these hazards as quickly as possible, I recommend that the following actions be taken:

1.    That Group 333 supervisors rigorously initiate and enforce a policy to free aisles of obstructions.
2.    That all dangerous racks be repaired and replaced.
3.    That the Engineering Group develop a safe rack dumper.
4.    That heavy wire mesh screens be mounted on the front of all tow motors.
5.    That Group 333 employees not accept scrap in containers that have not been properly banded.
6.    That illumination be increased in the chemical building and that a compulsory training program for the safe handling of caustic chemicals be scheduled.

I would like to meet with you and the supervisor of Group 333 before the end of the month, as your schedule permits.  You will have my complete cooperation in working out all of the details of the proposed recommendations.

Proposal for Upgrading

TO:  Marge Dundas, Director
Personnel Resources

FROM: Leslie Galusha, Manager
Administrative Support Services

SUBJECT: Upgrading from Typewriters to Word Processors

We are receiving an increasing number of requests to prepare direct mailings that involve sending each recipient an original copy, especially from the Advertising, Public Relations, and Employee Relations Departments.  The cost of calling in temporary help to get the typing done is very high, and an abnormal workload results from our efforts t get the extra work done.  In addition, the pressure causes much confusion and many frayed nerves.

I propose that we purchase a word processor to enable us to handle the increased workload without the cost and disruption of bringing in temporary help.  The following details show the savings and efficiency of the Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor as compared with our present method of dealing with the problem.

Efficiency

The Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor has a merge feature that permits the operator to type the basic letter as one file, substituting a special character for any word or words that will change from one letter to the next (such as name and address), and to type the word or words to be substituted for the special character (such as name and address) as a separate file.  Then the operator simply sets up the printer for merge printing and presses the MERGE key.  The system automatically types all the letters, substituting the indicated word or words from the second file in each consecutive letter.  This operation is many times faster than the best human typist, and it is entirely error-free, once programmed.

Keyboard entry on the Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor is much more efficient than it is with typewriter.  Instead of having to “paint out” an error or use typewriter correction paper, the operator simply strikes over the error.  (The system automatically  corrects the error on the diskette.)  Because correcting an error is so easy, statistics show that the operator’s typing speed increases.

An additional advantage of upgrading from typewriter to word processor is file storage.  Rather than using bulky filing cabinets for 8 1/2 by 11 inch paper, we can store over 600 pages on a single 8-inch diskette.  One single 11/2 inch diskette container holds ten diskettes, or more than 6,000 pages (double-spaced), thereby reducing our storage requirements dramatically.

Having a Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor and one trained operator would eliminate the need for temporary typists and the confusion caused by our training these typists while attempting to meet our own deadlines.  In short, we could carry on with our normal office routine.  A normal routine not only would improve our employee’ morale but would increase their efficiency.

Cost Savings

Purchase of the Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor with a Ricoh 45 characters per second daisy wheel printer would result in a savings of over $3,500 in the first year, as shown below.

Purchase price of Toshiba, EW-100 with Ricoh printer ——— $5,000
Cost of temporary typists from Wilson Secretarial Agency last year ——$7,400
Typewriter rental from World Office Machines last year ———-$1,120
Savings the first year ($7,400 + $1,120 – $5,000 = $3,520) ——- $3,520

Since purchase of the Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor is a one-time cost, the savings would be substantially greater after the first year.

On the basis of these facts, I recommend that we purchase a Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor.  Enclosed is a brochure that describes the Toshiba EW-100 Word Processor in detail.  I will be happy to provide any additional details about the system, as I understand it, at your request.

Sample Sales Proposal

Sales Proposal
To Landscape the New Corporate Headquarters of the Watford Valve Corporation

Submitted to: Ms. Tricia Olivera, Vice President
Submitted by: Jerwalted Nursery, Inc.
Date Submitted: February 1, 1992

Jerwalted Nursery, Inc., proposes to landscape the new corporate headquarters of the Watford Valve Corporation, on 1600 Swason Avenue, at a total cost of $8,000  Landscaping would begin no later than April 30, 1990, and would be completed by May 31.

The lot to be landscaped is approximately 600 feet wide and 700 feet deep.  The following trees and plants would be planted in the quantities and sizes given and at the prices specified.  They would be positioned as indicated in the enclosed drawing.

4 maple trees (not less than 7 ft.) $40 each – $160
41 birch trees (not less than 7 ft.) $65 each – 2,665
2 spruce trees (not less than 7 ft.) $105 each – 210
20 juniper plants (not less than 18 in.) $15 each – 300
60 hedges (not less than 18 in.) $7 each – 420
200 potted plants (various kinds) $2 each – 400
Total cost of plants  – $4,155
Labor – $3,845
Total Cost – $8,000

All trees and plants would be guaranteed against defect or disease for a period of 90 days, with the warranty period to begin June 1, 1992.

Thank you for the opportunity to submit this proposal.  Jerwalted Nursery Inc., has been in the landscaping and nursery business in the Providence area for thirty years, and our landscaping has won several awards and commendations, including a citation from the National Association of Architects.  We are eager to put our skills and knowledge to work for you, and we are confident that you will be pleased with our work.  If we can provide any additional information or assistance, please call.

Proposal Cover Letter Sample

September 1, 1998

Mr. John Yeung, General Manager
Cookson’s Retail Stores, Inc.
101 Longuer Street
Savannah, Georgia 31499

Dear Mr. Yeung:

The Waters Corporation appreciates the opportunity to respond to Cookson’s Request for Proposals dated July 26, 1998.  We would like to thank you Mr. Becklight, Directors of your Management Information Systems Department, for his invaluable contributions to the study of your operations that we conducted before preparing our proposal.

It has been Water’s privilege to provide Cookson’s with retails systems and equipment since your first store opened many years ago.  Therefore, we have become very familiar with your requirements as they have evolved during the expansion you have experienced since that time.  Water’s close working relationship with Cookson’s has resulted in a clear understanding of Cookson’s philosophy and needs.

Our proposal describes a Waters Interactive Terminal/Retail Processor System designed to meet Cookson’s network and processing needs.  It will provide all of your required capabilities, from the point-of-sale operational requirements at the store terminals to the host processor.  The system uses the proven Retail III modular software, with its point-of-sale applications, and the superior Interactive Terminal with its advanced capabilities and design.  This system is easily installed without massive customer reprogramming.

The Waters Interactive Terminal/Retail Processor System, which is compatible with much of Cookson’s present equipment, not only will answer your present requirements but will provide the flexibility to add new features and products in the future.  The system’s unique hardware modularity, efficient microprocessor design, and flexible programming capability greatly reduce the risk of obsolescence.

Thank you for the opportunity to present this proposal.  You may be sure that we will use all the resources available to the Waters Corporation to ensure the successful implementation of the new system.

Sincerely yours,

Janet A. Curtain
Executive Account Manager
General Merchandise Systems

Summary of Conclusion for Feasibility Study of Snack Stand

Marketing Aspects

1.    The Snack stand will be very much positive in offering a lot of services to satisfy customers needs, accept suggestion and criticisms to improve our business
2.    Snack stand will utilize with honesty and credibility thru our products and services.
3.    Snack stand will be always “open-minded” to those other competitors and will seek only the best.

Technical Aspect

1.    The final location of the business will be at the Common Terminal, Balanga City, Bataan.
2.    Raw materials will be obtained during its freshness and nearness to the source which is Elizabeth Supermarket in Balanga City itself.
3.    The management will provide cleanliness of the stall, especially the food for satisfaction of customers.

Management Aspect

1.    The best organizational structure to adopt in the same manner communication will be facilitated from the top to bottom and from the bottom to the top.
2.    The democratic atmosphere will always prevail in the business to ensure hormones interpersonal relationship between management and personnel.
3.    The Snack stand will develop the service activity to satisfy the need of the customer.

Socio-Economic Aspect

1.    The Snack stand will be very much responsible in promoting environmental, clean air act and proper waste disposal.
2.    Taxes assured for the city government.
3.    The partner’s will make sure of the observance and God-fearing to all of them.

Financial Aspect

1.    The amount of fifty thousand pesos (Php50,000.00) is substantially enough to put up the proposed project Snack stand.
2.    Based on the projections as depicted by the financial statements, the proposed project is a kind of lucrative undertaking.
3.    The proponent of the project will be responsible in producing the capital requirement.

Prepared by:  Arde Reyes

Data Presentation for a Project Proposal of Construction of Suspension Bridge

Geographical Site

The proposed site for the construction of the bridge is about thirty kilometers south of Aparri, Cagayan.  The water current at this point is weak which makes the construction suitable.  The bridge is bounded between two national roads.  At the right side is an intersection which leads to the eastern part of Cagayan.

The Advantages of a Suspension Bridge

A suspension bridge has its advantages

-    The manner of carrying  loads is highly efficient since so much of the load is carried by the cable in tension.
-    The analysis of the structure is greatly simplified because when a cable supports a load that is uniform per unit length of the cable itself, such as its own weight, it takes the form of a catenary; but unless the sag of the cable is large in proportion to its length, the shape taken may often be assumed to be parabolic

The Construction of a Suspension Bridge

The special design of the suspension bridge does not consider the stability of the river level.  It is more resistant than ordinary bridges to earthquakes.  A construction of this type of bridge the following general steps:

-   Topographic Surveying

One considers the span of the bridge and the soil conditions existing at the site where the bridge has to be constructed.

-    Engineering Design

The component parts of the bridge are designed.  This is a very complex work which is done by the qualified structural engineer after gathering the necessary data for the design.

-    Actual Construction Work

Under this phase of activity which is dependent upon the design made by the structural engineer are the salient structures to be constructed.

The Anchor

The making of the anchor depends a lot on the nature of the soil where it is going to be built.  If the soil is sandy, naturally it is not capable of holding too much tension, so that there is the need to drive tubular piles beneath the anchorsheet.  These tubular piles consists of a hallow cylindrical steel with concrete and steel bars in it.  These will help the anchor in supporting tremendous tension created by the cable.  These circumstances are applied to the proposed plan.  The western side of the river is sandy while the eastern part is rocky.  The anchor consists of steel imbedded in its concrete structure.  Its function is to lock the end of the main cable.  The making of an anchor needs a lot of time and needs a lot of calculations.  It usually takes time to build a certain type structure.  When mixed cement is poured to it, it is being filled layer by layer to ensure dryness, perfect dryness.  One of the anchors need the aide of the concrete-steel tubular piles.

The Abutments

Side spans and beams are supported by abutments.  Again, when the soil is sandy, there is the need to drive tubular piles at its bottom.  One of the abutments holds the weight of the main tower.

Towers

The towers are made of a hollow steel box about two meters wide and are joint together by gapless joints.  The erection is usually supported by cranes as temporary support.  The towers are erected first before the main cable.  When the towers are completed, a temporary steel extension is attached at the top which will hold the transporting cables.

Main Cable

The main cable consists of numerous steel strands.  The steel strands are transported from one side to the other by the use of the transporting cable.  When the number of steel strands is attained, they are tightened by the use of a twisting machine.  Sometimes, a catwalk is made from tower to tower.  These are temporary hanging ladders from the ground to the top of the tower continuously from tower to tower.

Therefore, transporting materials from one side to the other can be made manually.

Stiffening trusses

The stiffenig trusses are assembled first on the ground before they are carried through the transporting cables.  They are rigidly built that when they are attached to one another, they become a giant boom.  Aside from their strength, they are supported by vertical cables which are attached to the main cables.

Concreting

When making the concrete road, it is not cemented continuously.  It is divided into segments with allowance to avoid cracking when the concrete expands.  The concrete is made up of reinforced concrete stabs.

Excerpt from Proposal to Construct a Suspension Bridge to Connect the Province of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan
By: Vener A. Villanueva

Related Study and Methodology for the Proposal of Construction of Suspension Bridge

A Proposal to Construct a Suspension Bridge to Connect the Provinces of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan by Vener A. Villanueva .

Related Study

Cable stayed bridges are constructed along a structural system which comprises a deck and continuous girders which are supported by stays or inclined cables passing over or attached to tower located at the main piers.

Wide and successful application of cable – stayed systems was realized only recently, with the introduction of high strength steel, orthotropic type decks, development of welding techniques and progress in structural analysis.  The development and application of electronic computers open up new and practically unlimited possibilities for the exact solution of these highly statistically indetermined systems and for precise statistical analysis of their dimensional performance.

Existing cable-stayed bridges provide useful data regarding design, fabrication, erection and maintenance of the new system

Methodology

The researcher gathered the needed information from books, encyclopedia, periodicals and pamphlets.  He interviewed Engineer Reynaldo M.Reyes who gave additional information pertinent and relevant to the topic under discussion.