Writing Effective Business Proposal

In business, good decision is based on business proposal because it helps analyze the potential paths.  Using business proposal, decision makers will see the risk and benefits of making changes.

Preparing a business proposal is a lot of work because it requires a planning, researching, analyzing, and answering fundamental questions related to past, present and future of a new business solution.

The past corresponds to the nature of the problems and any difficulties that the company faces.  Presents corresponds with the solution while the future is about the long term benefits of implementing the proposal.

The first part of your proposal includes the background such as the problem and difficulties of the company. Then at the second part, you can now present the solution for the problem.  You can also include the history or the related literature before presenting the solution being proposed.  The solution contains the discussion about the proposal, cost and the benefits of implementing it the company.  You can include graph and charts for further explanation.

The last part will include the future which includes the long term benefits such as the changes and impact for their organization.

When writing effective proposal can be complex and simple things since it all depends on the situation.  Always make sure that your proposal is a winning proposal, meaning that your proposal has outlined the benefits to be gained by the company.

Pelleting Mill Sample Proposal

Proposed Solution for  B-Meg  Pelleting Mill

Introduction

San Miguel Corporation has always been the vanguard in providing high quality products and services to Filipinos.  And today, the San Miguel seal of excellence will be found on most Filipino tables through its popular and well-loved food and beverage brands.

In 1953, when it first ventured into the feeds manufacturing business, San Miguel went one step further in its drive to feed the nation. Using bacillus megatherium, a growth promotant derived from its beer brewing operations, it began supplying quality animal feeds for poultry and hog raisers nationwide.

Since then, the San Miguel feed manufacturing business has grown by leaps and bounds.  In 1955, it registered its flagship brand B-MEG with the Bureau of Animal Industry, giving it the distinction of getting BAI Registration Certificate No.1.

From a one-ton feedmill at the San Miguel Polo Brewery, to the Manila B-MEG Plant in Balintawak, to more than 25 strategically-located feedmills that produce B-MEG products nationwide – raisers are assured of fresh, high quality B-MEG feeds for the growth of their livestock.

Background of the Study

Last Year, B-MEG at Mariveles, Bataan, one of San Miguel’s many plants encountered a problem on one of their process machines, the pelleting mill.  The plant has a machine which can produce 50 tons of pellets in just an hour it cannot meet its requirement.  It only runs 35 tons per hour because the trouble its encountering  The down time of the machine gives them a shortage in supplying their products.  Chia Tung Company, located at Taiwan, the pelleting mill supplier of B-MEG also commissioned the said problem for it still covered by the warranty

Objectives

General Objective
- Develop a solution on B-MEG’s Problem on their Pelleting

Specific Objective
-    To discuss the pelleting process in terms of operation
-     To describe how the success or failure of the operation

Scope and Limitation

Process

The process of the pellet actually occurs at the “nip” between the rolls and the die.  All other activities associated with the operation such as conditioning, cooling, etc. really support and augment the action at that point in the system.

In order to understand the process and be in a position to make intelligent decision to improve throughput, quality or appearance, one must have a thorough understanding of what happens at the nip point.

Depending upon the physical characteristics of the feed, a lesser or greater proportion of the work done by the pellet mill is used for compression.  For example, if the formula contains a high level of fibrous ingredients such as bagasse, bran or ground alfalfa, the mill will expend a large amount of energy simply compressing the mash to the density of the subsequent pellet.  Conversely, for a relatively dense feed such as high grain and soy meal, the mill will expend a lesser amount of energy for compression and a greater amount for throughput.

The “extrusion area” is the point at which the mash has reached pellet density and begins to flow through the die holes.  There are many physical forces that must be    dealt with in the pelleting process.

The primary purpose of the roll is to provide a force on the mash to densify the feed and cause it to flow toward the die.  The gap between the roll and the die, the roll surface characteristics and the physical properties of the mash determine how great this potential force might be.

The die provides, not only the final diameter of the pellet, but the resistance force on the feed and has a direct influence on throughput rate and pellet quality.  These two forces (roll and die) are opposite each other but must work together to provide quality pellets at an acceptable production rate.  The force generated by the roll must be greater than the resistive force provided by the die; if not, throughput is zero.

With a general understanding of the process inside the pellet chamber, it is appropriate to move to a discussion of various factors that affect both throughput and pellet quality.

Formulation

There are feedstuff materials that pellet well and produce a durable pellet and others that will not.  Researchers (1966) developed a pelletability chart in which he ranked feed ingredients in their pelletability and degree or abrasiveness.  They (1962) experimented with applying numerical value to each major (feed) ingredient to indicate its “stickiness” or its ability to help form a tough, durable pellet.  He called that value a “stick factor” and fed that factor into the computer along with the various nutritive values of each ingredient to provide formulas that meet all nutritional specifications as well as supplying a formula that will produce a quality pellet at least cost.

Those early workers led others to experiment with the effects of various ingredients – grains, milled by products, fats, pellet binders, minerals, etc. on pellet quality or durability.  They also led to the development of a standard method for testing pellet durability perfected in the 1960’s by Dr. Harry B. Pfost at Kansas State University and accepted as a standard by the American Association of Agricultural Engineer- ASAE S-269.3 (ASAE, 2003).  That method is generally known as the K-State, or tumbling can, durability test; and it provided a means of quantifying the toughness of pellets or their ability to withstand the downstream handling that is typical in feed plants and feed delivery systems.  That was a major breakthrough in the technology of pelleting and has served the industry for all these years.

Schedule of Activities

Week 1 and 2 – Observe Process
Week 3 and 4 – Gather Data
Week 5 and 6 – Analyze Data
Week 7 – Purchase new equipment
Week 8 – Test equipment

Expected Outcome

After the activities, the company replace the single machine with (3) three sets of the same machine but in different production capacity.

References

ASAE, 2003, ASAE Standard: ASAE S 269.3, Wafers Crumbles, and Crumbles – Definitions and Methods for Determining Density, Durability, and Moisture Content, ASAE Standards 2003, The Society of Engineering in Agriculture St. Joseph, Michigan: 70-72.

Bartikoski, R.G., 1962, The Effect of Steam on Pellet Durability, Cost Reductions Through In-Plant Production Controls, Midwest Feed Manufacturers’ Association, Kansas City, Missouri: 42-47.

Behnke, K.C., 1981, Pellet Mill Performance as Affected by Mineral Source, Feedstuffs, Vo.l. 32, No.12, Miller Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota: 34-36

Proposal for Highway Engineering: Building for Economic Structure

Highway Engineering: Building for Economic Structure

1.    Abstract

Highway Engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of road surfaces, and the organization and supervision of the personnel required in highway construction and maintenance.  Included are the required earthwork and the drainage system (except bridges and culverts which are classed as structural engineering guard fences and direction and warning signs.

2.    Summary

Highway planning, location designing, construction and maintenance constitute highway or highway improvement.  Several aspects including general planning and financing must be considered.  Technical planning includes traffic needs of the area for a given period (generally 20 years) the type of construction to meet those needs such as the most suitable location, layout and capacity of the new route in relation to the traffic requirement, terrain to be tranversed, value of land needed for the right of way and estimated project costs.

3.    Conclusion

Technological advancement has improved expertise in highway engineering and its related fields of soils, road building equipment and materials.  Designs are now more economical, more reliable; and these developments have revolutionized construction methods.  The highway engineer is aware that a highway can be attractive as well as useful.

4.    Recommendation

This report recommends that the final plans for a proposed highway should be made public for comments so that, it necessary, the plans could be modified accordingly.

5.    Introduction

The advent of motorized land transportation in the twentieth century, the continuing increase in the number of vehicles and the attendant requirements for safer, smoother, and more durable thoroughfares have been a challenge to the highway engineer.

6.    Methodology

The data presented in this report is gathered from technical books, interviews, and expertise culled from work experiences.

7.    Discussion

7.1 Planning

Planning a proposed highway involves the gathering of statistical information from every available source.  Surveys must be made to decide on the prospective location, the designed features and adjacent structures; date must be gathered to determine the volume of future traffic, and the speed and density throughout the day, the kinds and weights of the different road vehicles and the point most frequently traveled on existing roads, etc.

7.1.1 Survey

The first step toward highway location is intensive reconnaissance survey to start with deliberate study of all available general routes that may marked for careful inspection on the ground.  Reconnaissance in the field is often accomplished by using a compass for measuring angles and pacing or stadia to determine distances.  A unique bridge site or single mountain pass may become a primary control it no alternative exists.  Likewise for scenic highways, the position of timbered areas, waterfalls and other attractions may become primary controls  Cost factor such as favorable or unfavorable soil conditions, the number and sizes of structures and amount of excavation and grade, can similarly be classified as secondary controls.

7.1.2 Aerial Reconnaissance

Airplane flights are used in conducting highway reconnaissance.  Aerial examination of possible routes gives comprehensive pictures that cannot be gained from the ground.  Flights after ground reconnaissance is completed are of great advantage in clearly relating the proposed road to details of the surrounding country.

After the reconnaissance, it is usual to run a preliminary location survey first and to be followed by a final location survey.  These are commonly made by transit and chaining methods.

7.2 Designing

The design of a highway must be correlated with features of location, the terrain, consideration of present and future use, the over-all plan for development of the transportation system and must be based upon both local and regional needs.

The detailed design of a highway project includes drawings on blue prints to be used for construction.  These plans show, among other information, the exact location, the dimension of such elements as roadway width, the final profile for the road, the location and type of drainage facilities and the quantities of work involved, including earthwork and surfacing.

7.2.1 Soil Study

In planning the grading operations, the design engineer considers the type of material to be encountered in excavating or in cutting away the high points along the project and how the material removed can best be utilized for filling or for constructing embankments across low areas elsewhere on the project.  For this, the engineer must analyze the gradation and physical properties of the soil, determine how the embankment can best be compacted and calculate the volume of earthwork to be done.

7.2.2 Drainage

Adequate drainage is the most important element in road and highway construction.  Much of highway engineering is devoted to carry streams across the highway’s right of way.

7.3. Construction

After designs are specified on the basis of plans, the work of building the road is begun  The preparation for the roadbed’s foundation called grading is done first.  It includes round excavation, the formation of embankments and the smoothing of slopes.  The first step is to remove all vegetation from the roadway section, an operation in which the bulldozer plays a large part.  Then, a heavy earth-moving machinery moves materials from cut section into fill sections, where the materials is placed in layers, brought to the proper moisture content, and compacted to the required density.

7.3.1 Highway Pavement

Highway paving is the smooth waterproof having the material composition, strength and durability needed to withstand the estimated traffic and weather conditions.  The types of pavement may be classified as low cost, intermediate and heavy duty.

Effective Proposal Writing

Of course, it will said to be effective proposal if it is accepted.  The question is how to write an effective proposal.  Proposal is effective if it prove to solve a problem and get approve by your reader or audience.

At the beginning of your proposal, state your purpose clearly. Also, mention your background information so that your audience or reader will understand your proposal. In addition, avoid technical terms and use language that everyone can understand.

In order to have an effective proposal, you should define the problem clearly and then specify your solution to solve the problem. Remember that the purpose of your proposal is to convince your reader or audience that your solution is the best.  As much as possible provide samples and information based on facts to be more convincing and meaningful.  Your opinion will not support by your audience.  Research more about your topic to have more concrete evidence that will support your proposal.

Include the analysis of your plan as well as the result of your solution.  Your audience should know that the solution is working to solve the problem.

The most concern of your audience if your proposal is financially feasible, that’s why it is important that your proposal is attainable and affordable by the company.  Think of company’s finances.  Explain to them that your proposal would be worth their money and time. You can provide cost benefit analysis.

Finally, overall appearance of your proposal should be perfect such as proper margin, grammar and spelling.

Sample Proposal Letter – Offer Security Services

January 13, 2001

Mr. Red Allan Enema
Manager
R&R Enterprise Inc.
Quezon City

Dear Mr. Enema:

We are pleased to submit a security services proposal to your company.

Our company, Sentinel Security Agency, is a licensed service provider engaged in security protection.  We take pride in rendering protective services to business establishments, banks, and residential areas, for more than 25 years.  Some of our clients are enumerated in the attached company profile.

We take this opportunity to extend our appreciation for allowing us to introduce our company.  We look forward to be of service to your firm.

Truly yours,

Emmanuel Manlapid

Sample Proposal for One (1) Storey Four Door Apartment

Project Title: Proposed One (1) Storey Four Door Apartment
Location: Lot 1 Blk 14 Hayde Subd., San Fernando Pampanga
Owner: Jhony Deffand Eliza Deff, spouses

General Conditions of the Contract

This agreement is made and enters into this __________, by and between Architect Luisa R. Sy, Lot 2, Blk 3 Chocolate Subd. San Fernando Pampanga , and ___________, owner of B1 Lot 3, Villa Quintana, San Fernando, Pampanga.

The parties hereto, for in consideration hereinafter, hereby covenant and agreed as follows:

1.    That the Architect hires by the contracting party under this contract to do work construction and supervision of One (1) Storey Four Door Apartment with a total floor area of 82.25 square meters (5.50 x 5.50 meter).

2.    That the general conditions of the contract, specifications, plan, as well as drawings relating hereto form the integral part of the contract.

3.    Scope of Work

a.    The architect, in consideration of the payment to be made by the Owner the sum of money hereinafter named, agrees to furnish all labor, materials, equipment tools and other facilities and the satisfactory and faithful performance of all works necessary to commence and complete the project ready for use as shown on the drawing the specifications, instructions and other related documents as prepared by Architect.
b.    The entire work of the construction of the proposed project shall be under the supervision of the Architect
c.    When the work is completed, the Architect shall remove and properly dispose all the temporary structures, materials and rubbish of every sort and leave the premises and ground in good condition.
d.    As agreed, in behalf of the owner the architect will apply and process the building and occupancy permits, however all payments for the permits shall be paid by the architect and included in the lump sum contract.
e.    Electricity and water services shall be provided and secured by the owner.
f.    As such, specification of materials and finishes of the building are included and part of the contract.

4.    Changes

These are alterations, additions or omissions of work or materials specified or shown in the drawings during the progress of construction
a.    All changes on the approved plans shall be approved by the Architect and Owner.
b.    If such changes are made the corresponding value or amount must be agreed upon in writing or mutual between the Owner and the Architect.

5.    Schedule of construction

The work to be performed by the contractor/architect under this contract shall be commenced upon approval and securing repair permit and not later than ________ 2011 and shall be completed on later than ___________ 2011 unless an extension of time has been authorized or approved by the Owner in writing.

6.    Work under this contract may be discharge by performance if both parties are able to comply with their respective obligations

7.    The Contract Sum

a.    The Owner agrees that for and in consideration of the faithful performance by the Architect/Contractor in accordance with the provisions of this contract, he/she shall pay the architect/contractor, in a manner provided therein, the amount ____________
b.    It is expressly agreed by both parties that no change shall be made in the above mentioned contract amount as a result of any fluctuation on the cost of materials, and/or labor.

8.    Payments

a.    Partial payments shall be made by the Owner on account of the Architect of this contract as follows:

_________ final and full payment upon building turnover and submitting the certificate of completion and occupancy permit to the owner.

-    Should the owner fail to pay within 30 days the sum due to the Architect she/he shall receive from the owner an additional as interest at the legal rate in force.

The parties to this agreement hereby agree to full performance of the covenants contained herein.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties to this Agreement have on the day and year first above given, hereunto set their hands at the bottom of this page and on the left hand margin of all other pages of this Agreement.

__________
Owner

__________
Architect

Signed in the presence of

______________

______________

Research Proposal Format

Below is a suggested format of a research proposal

I.    Prefatory parts
a.    Title Page
b.    Letter of Transmittal
c.    Table of Contents
d.    List of Tables and/or figures(if any)
e.    Executive summary or abstract

II.    Body of Proposal
a.    Introduction
i.    Problem
ii.    Need
iii.    Background
iv.    Objectives or Purpose
b.    Procedure
i.    Methods and sources
ii.    Strategies
iii.    Equipment, facilities, products
c.    Personal qualifications
d.    Evaluation and benefits of project
e.    Budget of cost, prices, total bid

III.    Supplementary parts
a.    Agency forms
i.    Budget justification
ii.    References
b.    Tables, maps, graphs (if any)

Sample Outline Proposal

The Installation of Vibration-Sensitive Switch on Reciprocating Machines

1.   Abstract

The abstract defines and describes what a vibration-sensitive switch is and how it works

2.    Introduction

The introduction is a capsule company profile which defines the company’s production capabilities and experiences.

3.    Methodology

The methodology refers to the procedures which the proponent intends to use to accomplish the proposed job.

4.    Facilities

Components of the proposed product are identified.

5.    Personnel

The personnel to be involved in the project are itemized.

6.    Duration

A time-table of the project is provided for.

7.   Cost

Personnel expenses are itemized.

Practical Proposal Writing Tips

Writing proposal can be a tedious job for someone. The following are some practical tips.

  1. Start early as possible because when you start early you will be able to know the needed data and information.
  2. Identify the problem, need or knowledge to be address properly.
  3. Clearly state your objectives and explain the proposed outcomes to address the problems.
  4. Make sure that you have appropriate rationale for each study. Also, explain the importance of your project.
  5. Define your methodology to be used in order to accomplish your objectives including the activities that will take place.
  6. Include the personnel who will carry out the activity as well as the equipment and facilities to be used.
  7. Don’t forget to include the cost of your project being proposed.
  8. Make sure to organize your project into proper format because it is an effective way of communicating of the details of the proposed work or project.
  9. Don’t forget to read instruction carefully before start writing because reviewer of your proposal will check the designated format as well the required information.
  10. Be simple and concise by removing all unnecessary detail or information.
  11. Make your work well-organized and concise so that it will stand out in the crowd.
  12. Give credits to your sources. If you use several paragraph from any magazine, you can put a quotes and cite the sources.

Business Proposal Outline

You have an idea for a new product or service and you will need an investment to pursue your business venture, what you will have to do is to create a business proposal.  You have to make a winning business proposal in order to get financial support or getting help from prospective investor or client.

There is no standard outline or format or ideal format for business proposal but as long as it has complete content of a business requirement.

The following are a sample outline for business proposal:

  1. Executive Summary – It contains the overview of your proposal.
  2. Business Description – It provides the background and history of your business.  Also contains the goals as well as the product or services description being proposed. It also discussed the supplier information, agreements and ownership structure and legal considerations.
  3. Business Opportunities – It contains the potential customer, geographical area, business competitors.
  4. Marketing Strategy – It presents the costing and pricing, sales projection, and marketing plan.
  5. Business Operations – It includes the operational function, services offered, and personnel.
  6. Technology – It discusses the technology and application to be used.
  7. Finances – It includes the revenue, expenses, and financial projections.
  8. Appendices – It provides the supporting documents that will be useful to the business such as curriculum vitae of the owner and stockholders, permits, agreements and financial statement for the last 3 years.