Review of Related Literature

Countries depended on imported fossils fuels, like the Philippines, feel the pinch caused by the rising cost of crude oil and petroleum excise duties.  Add to that, 70% of mineral oil deposits are located in politically unstable areas.

The mounting pressure from environment groups for cleaner air also gives more urgency for the concerned agencies look for ways to make alternative fuel commercially viable.  Especially since its raw materials could be locally sourced. Coconut bio-fuel advocates have stressed that coconut methyl este (CME) is the most viable as transport fuels compared to compressed natural gases and Alco diesel.

Coconut Methyl Ester is the most practical of the alternative fuels because is easy to make and easy to apply and is biogradable.  The use of fuel such as coconut methyl ester significantly stabilizes carbon dioxide emission and prevents its increase because carbon dioxide is locked into a closed circuit.  Since coconut methyl ester is plant origin, it produces carbon dioxide when it and it goes back to the plant, therefore, it has no global effects on global warming. Both the environment and health concerns will benefit because fuel blends with CME thereby, reducing particulate matters.  Thus the black exhaust gas that it emits can cause diseases.  It has been proven that plant base fuel when burned produces carbon neutral gas.

Air is the source we breathe.  Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live.  Air is 99.9 nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gas.  Human actions can release substances into the air thus causing harmful for humans, plants, and animals.  Several main kinds of pollution include acid rain, smog, the greenhouse effect and “holes” in the ozone layer.  Each of these harmful problems has serious implications to our health and the environment.  One kind of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy.  Diesel smoke is one of a good example of this particular matter.  The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about 0.0001 inches.  This kind of pollution is referred to as “black carbon” pollution.  The exhaust from – burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air.  The release of noxious gases is another type of air pollution, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SoX), Nitrogen Oxide (NoX),  Particulate matter (PM), and chemical vapors.  These can take chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere forming smog and acid rain.  Air pollution is also inside our homes, offices, and schools.  Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking.  In some countries like the United States, they spend about 80-90% of their time inside the buildings so exposure to indoor pollutants can seriously be harmful.

Air pollution can affect our health in many ways.  Human beings are affected by air pollution in different ways.  People are much more sensitive to pollutants.  Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution.  Individuals with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted.

This sample review of related literature is taken from the project proposal entitled,  “Comparative Analysis of Physico-Chemical Characteristics between 20% and 25% CME Blend by Volume on Bunker Fuel and the Effect of Exhaust Gas Emission” by: Kristian G. Barario, Rhio C. Dimakiling, Orley G. Fadriquel and Manuel Robles.

Background of the Study

The air of the future is the air we breathe today.  It is our source of life, tomorrow’s generation depends on it.  Air is composed of 78.084 Nitrogen, 20.946 Oxygen, 0.934 Argon, 0.033 Carbon Dioxide, 0.003 rare gases (all are in mole %).  The breakdown of air composition, water vapor and inert gases, cause it to lose its purity.

Air pollution is everyone’s burden.  Not only have human beings experienced the effect it brings.  But different groups of individuals are likewise, affected by air pollution in different ways.  Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than others.  Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution.  People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung diseases may also suffer more when the air is polluted.  The pollutants coming from different sources affect primarily our health.  Particulate Matter (PM) a type of pollutant composed of particles found in the air, including dust, soot, smoke and liquid droplets can be suspended in the air for long periods of time.  Some particles are large dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke.  This may cause a wide variety of impacts on health and environment.  Some of the health effects occur in the respiratory system, which results to difficulty in breathing, aggravated asthma, chronic bronchitis or even premature death.  PM also causes the reduction of visibility.  Even the water people drink can be exposed to the particles carried over long distances by wind.

A colorless, odorless gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely is another common pollutant, popularly known as Carbon Monoxide (CO).  Found in the motor vehicle exhaust and in metal and chemical manufacturing industries it contributes more than 85-95% of all CO emissions nationwide.

This sample background of study is excerpt from the project proposal entitled,  “Comparative Analysis of Physico-Chemical Characteristics between 20% and 25% CME Blend by Volume on Bunker Fuel and the Effect of Exhaust Gas Emission” by: Kristian G. Barario, Rhio C. Dimakiling, Orley G. Fadriquel and Manuel Robles

Sample Abstract for Project Proposal

The study deals with the comparative analysis of physico-chemical characteristics; between 20% and 25% CME by volume on the controlled samples of bunker fuel, and the effects of exhaust gas emission.

The blended fuel will be submitted to a qualified separate testing agency for physico-chemical analysis.  In physico-chemical characterization, specific results from testing the blend will concentrate on the following: the heating value of the blend, the calculated cetane index, kinematic viscosity, API gravity, flash point, sulfur content, pour point, and the bottom sediments and water.

Testing of exhaust gas emission will be done using flue gas analyzer.  The boiler pressure controller will be set at 1 kg/cm2 as its cut in pressure and 4 kg/cm2 as its cut-off and maximum operating pressure.  Boiler operating temperature will be set at 180 degree C.  Measurement of SOx, NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and other particulate matters at the stack will be made when boiler reaches its operating pressure and temperature.

Title: Comparative Analysis of Physico-Chemical Characteristics between 20% and 25% CME Blend by Volume on Bunker Fuel and the Effect of Exhaust Gas Emission
BY: Kristian G. Barario, Rhio C. Dimakiling, Orley G. Fadriquel and Manuel Robles

What is Research Proposal

Research proposal is showing the problem intended to solve and investigate.   It should be significant enough to deserve the investigation and the method to be used should be suitable and feasible, while the results are prove to be fruitful and will create original contribution to person, company or society.  A good research proposal should be impresses or proves to your thesis committee that you have potential as a researcher and your research proposal should promises success for the project.

A research proposal should contain sufficient information to evaluate the proposed study by your reader.  It should have a key elements involves in the research process. Research proposal should answer the question, What plan to accomplish, why want to do it and how do it. It should contain title, abstract, introduction, literature review, methods and results.

Sample Project Proposal

Project proposal is a written to solve a technical problem according to Mills and Walter (1990).  It is also use as a basis for a feasibility study.  There are three major section of project proposal; introduction, technical section and summary.

Below is an example of project proposal, an excerpt project proposal from Tarlac State University.

I.    Project Profile

A.    Project Title : Linking TSU to the World’s Information Highway via internet
B.    Proponent: Engr. Wilson C. Fallorin, Director , Institute of Computer Studies
C.    Implementing College/Unit: University Research Office
D.    Stand Classification: Information Technology
E.    Project Site: University Research Office and/or Institute of Computer Studies, Tarlac State University
F.      Project Duration: September – December 2002
G.    Total Project Cost: Php 327,000.00
H.    Project Brief Executive Summary:

Internet is a global network of computer networks, linking millions of users around the world.  With internet, enormous information resources are available to the users.

Tarlac State University (TSU), once connected to this global network, can avail of the following services:

1.    File Transfer – which takes up a major portion of the traffic, allows one to copy and/or send files in a computer-to-computer medium, thus, minimizing dispatching time, without the use of messengerial services.
2.    Information Searching and Retrieval – enables a user to access or browse database files in electronic libraries around the world from the comfort of one’s desktop.
3.    Electronic Mail – which takes up a minor portion of data traffic and allows the exchange of electronic messages.
4.    Remote Login – offers users the capability to use computer resources, including supercomputers of other organizations on an agreed term of use.
5.    Online Conferencing or Electronic Bulletin Board – are available from users who want to participate in on going electronic conferences and discussions grouped by subject areas or expertise.

II.    Project Proposal Proper

A.    Rationale:

The Philippines is now a node in the world’s information highway.  This followed after country’s connection with INTERNET, was finalized with the installation of the required communication facilities and full operation of PHNet.

PHNet was created with the support of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Ateneo de Manila University (ADMU), De La Salle University (DLSU), and the University of the Philippines at Diliman and Los Banos, to study the viability of establishing PHNet.  Other organizations and experts were also consulted in the process.

Considering the increasing demand for PHNet services, as seen in Phase 1 operation, DOST committed support for the first year operation of Phase 2, that is establishing a 64 kbps link to Internet (US)

This facility links nine primary nodes in four regions of the country – DOST, AMDU, DLSU, UP Diliman, UPLB, University of Santo Tomas, University of San Carlos (Cebu) Xavier University (Cagayan de Oro) and Saint Louis University (Baguio)

Sample Business Proposal Guideline

A business proposal is just like a business deal.  It could be a report showing an idea to improve management to your boss or it could be a written document offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. A business proposal is needed to every business to use in decision making.  Actually a business proposal is a business idea to improve services and the company as well.

There is a lot of sample business proposal everywhere either in the net or somewhere else. You can use sample business proposal as your guidance in your writing but make sure not to copy, just serve as an idea on how to do it.  The purpose of using sample business proposal is to assess proposal created by others in your industry. There are some benefits of reviewing a sample business proposal because it can save money, time and effort because it serves as a basis of your own proposal. Using a sample business proposal will increase profitability of the company by launching a new product or service.

In choosing a right sample business proposal, it is important that you will know what to look for. It can be a template that can easily customize with your company’s information and it has a good graphics and professional layout. Also, it should be easily and quickly fill in important information about your company.

Things to Consider in Writing a Project Proposal

-    Introduction. Gives the overview of the proposal and answer what the proposal is about. Briefly describe the project without too much detail.

-    Problem Statement. Clearly identified the problem and convince the audience or reader that the problem is important and call possible solutions.

-    Objectives. Explain what the project seeks to achieve.  The reader or audience need to know the outcome to expect from the proposal.  Describe the goals of the project, and the tangible changes to be take place. Make sure that your objectives will directly address to the problems identified in the previous section.

-    Methods. Enumerate the procedures to be used to achieve the goals of the project.  Present the audience an effective means of achieving the stated objectives.

-    Resources. Show the resources and show how they will be used to complete the project in terms of money and facilities.

-    Schedule. Set a timetable to complete the project on time.

-    Qualifications. It is important to show the experience and capabilities of the person involved in the project such as the qualifications of each member.

-    Cost/Benefit Analysis. Include the brief statement of benefits versus project costs. Present financial data that could convince your audience that the expected benefits outweigh the costs.

Vital Parts of Feasibility Study

A.    Summary of Project

  1. Name of Firm
  2. Location – head office and plant site
  3. Brief description of the product
  4. Highlights of major assumptions such as market projections, share and prices, investment costs, method of funding
  5. Summary of findings and conclusions on the following

a.    Market feasibility
b.    Technical feasibility
c.    Financial feasibility

B.    General Information – Describe the pre-operating period, during the operating period, labor, and professional firms or consultants to be hired, if any. Also, includes status of timetable of the project and other information such as pending litigations, information regarding intangibles, etc.

C.    Competitive position considering imported and/or substitute products.

D.    Marketing Program – description of the present marketing practices of competitors in the exports and domestic market. Projected export and proposed marketing program of the project.  It includes the contribution to the economy, plant layout, structure, raw materials, utilities, and waste disposal.

E.    Financial Feasibility – Total project cost, initial capital requirements, sources of financing, financial statements,  and financial analysis.

F.    Social Desirability – specific project contributions to the economy and society and social rate return.

Parts of the Project Proposal

A. Project Profile

  • Title of the Project – specific name of the proposed project
  • Proponents – the persons or researchers who plan to conduct the project
  • Implementing College/Unit – specific unit or department who manage the project
  • Project Site – location of the project
  • Project Duration – span of time allotted for the compilation of the project
  • Total Project Cost – total amount needed to complete the project
  • Brief Executive Summary of the Project – general picture of the project proposal which consists 3 to 5 sentences.

B. Project Proposal Proper

  • Introduction – benefits derived from the project
  • Rationale – short background of the project
  • Project Description – discusses the vital information about the project such as nature, project site and beneficiaries
  • Objectives – long and short term goals of the project
  • Significance – importance of the project
  • Project Components / Strategies of Implementation – major activities of the project such as the methodology of implementation
  • Implementing schedule – list of activities that will be undertaken in chronological order with the corresponding time frame
  • Estimated budget – detailed breakdown of the budget for the project with the financial work plan

Sample Budget Format for Grant Proposal

A suggested budget format for a three year funding proposal:

ItemsYear 1               Year 2                Year 3
Personnel # 1
Personnel # 2
Personnel # 3
Personnel # 4

Facilities (pls. list)

Equipment (pls. list)

Supplies (pls. list)

Communication (pls. list)

In-land Travel (pls. list)
Provincial Trips
Car Rental
Per diem

Overall Total