Proposal Writing Tips and Strategies

Writing proposal can be tedious job but if you will know the steps of writing proposal, it can never be difficult.  The first step in writing a proposal is defining the project by establishing proposal title.  Also, it is need to identify the agency as well as find out guidelines and deadlines.  Write down preliminary material. In addition, perform literature search and also consider writing the first draft of full proposal.

Some parts to consider in writing proposal are introduction, problem statement, objectives, methodology, evaluation if necessary, dissemination, future funding, budget, appendices, abstract and curriculum vitae. Not all proposals require these parts but most of them are required by agency.

The following are some tips and strategies in writing proposal:

  • Make use of outline formats and records to break up narrative texts.
  • Do not use vague languages like might, could, ought, should, hope, will, may, it appears, consider.
  • Don’t think that the reader is familiar with the subject.
  • Prevent using unsupported arguments.
  • Avoid impossible promises.
  • Include illustrations or visuals to explain abstract concepts and relationships.
  • Proofread and review proposal over and over again and let someone to proofread it to see opinion of others.
  • Proposal should be organized, readable, grammar free and without missing page and also consider overall appearance such as cleanliness.

Proposal Training Program

A Proposal Training Program in Consumer Behavior for the Employees of ABC Corporation

I.    Rationale

A.    Situation of marketing in relation to consumer behavior
B.    Existing problem of marketing about consumer behavior
C.    Factors that affects consumer behavior

1.    Internal Factors
(a)    Perception
(b)    Motivation
(c)    Learning
(d)    Attitudes
(e)    Personality

2.    Social Influences
(a)    Family
(b)    Reference
(c)    Social Class
(d)    Culture and subculture

D.    Contributions of the behavioral sciences to marketing.

E.    Aim/Purpose of the proposed training program on consumer behavior

II.    General Objectives

  • to have a better understanding and knowledge regarding consumer behavior, its concepts, dynamics and implications that are useful in formation, production, innovation of products for the advancement of the corporation.

III.    Specific Objectives

  • to identify and explain the complexities and dynamics of buyer behavior.
  • to apply these knowledge in marketing decision making and sales training procedure.
  • to critically evaluate business decisions from behavioral science perspective.
  • to enhance important skills set including analytical and critical thinking in producing products in the market.
  • to individuality and collectively analyze and solve complex marketing problem with an emphasis to consumer behavior.
  • to know the concepts and implications of consumers in order to produce a new technique or strategies in marketing.

IV.    Strategies and Methodologies

A.    Planning Phase

  1. Selecting of some employees from marketing department who will serve as a participant in the training program.
  2. Pre evaluate of the employees status and understanding on consumer behavior.
  3. Orientation of the employees for the training program.

B.    Implementation

  1. Presentation of lectures, seminars, and workshop regarding consumer behavior.
  2. Application of the learning in the marketing.
  3. Post evaluation of performance of the employees after one month.

V.    Workplan

VI.    Budgetary Requirements

System Feasibility Study

In the field of computer and technology, there always an option to automate things likes payroll system, inventory system, lighting system, and sales system.  But of course, before the automation of any system, a feasibility study should be conducted in order to see the benefits of automation over manual system as well as other alternatives.

At first, you should study the organizational systems such as the users, policies, functions and objectives. Consider also the problems existing over the present systems like redundancies, inconsistencies and slow services. Also, know the constraints such as the nonfunctional requirement.

After analyzing the present or current system, possible alternatives should be presented.  Sticking to the current or present system is always an alternative. Different types of automation or computerization and business processes are considered to solve the existing problems. Advantages and disadvantages of each alternative should be discussed.

In addition, the computation of payback analysis, net present value analysis, and return on investment analysis should be included in your feasibility study.

If there is a feasibility study, the best alternative is to be preferred by the management because there a chance of comparing alternative. Feasibility study will determine the best solution to the problems.  After all, feasibility study is written to assess each alternative and come out of the best alternative that will benefit the intended users.

How to Write a Good Business Plan

It is essential to all business to write a business plan whether you’re starting a new business venture or applying for a business loans but also business plan is also important for running a business for reaching business goals.  A successful business man will keep their business plan handy during the course of their business and review it monthly to monitor business growths.  Business is just like human life, if you don’t have plans and goals, you will end up nothing.  Business plan is your road map for your business success because you will able to examine business development.

Here are some points in writing a good business plan.

  • Executive Summary. Outline business goals and objectives.  You will include your business strategy.
  • Company History.  Explain clearly the history or how the business starts.
  • Company Goals. Define short and long term business goals.  Also, state your primary customers.
  • Company Organization. Give details for management team such as names and backgrounds of members as well as their respective responsibilities.
  • Company service or product to be offered. Discuss your product or services to be offered and how it differs from others on the market.
  • Market Potential of services or product to be offered. Convince lenders, employees and others that your market is large and growing.
  • Marketing Strategy. Include your marketing strategy such as how to advertise your business whether online marketing or TV ads or Web ads.
  • Business Financial Projection. A three or five year financial projection is essential to include. Discuss the summary of your financial forecasts such as the spreadsheets showing formula used to reach your projections.  Also, you will need balance sheets, income statements, break-even analysis, cash flow projections, assumptions and business ratios.

What to Include in your Feasibility Study

In starting a new business venture, it is important to conduct a feasibility study to ensure that your business will be successful.  Some things to be included are plan, cost, and sources of funding, manpower and personnel requirements, market and profitability.

In the plan section of your feasibility study, State clearly the objectives and description of the project. Duration to complete the project is also included. It is usually answers the questions what, why and how about the project.

Indicate the cost of equipment and facilities needed for the project.  The proponents should undertake reliable canvassing using at least two or three supplier and be particulars to models and capacities of equipment as well as the availability of materials.

Also, it is important if there is budget for the project.  If there is no sufficient budget for the project, a bank loan may be considered.  In this case, the loan amount and its interest must be factored into the financial documents of the study.  Realistic income targets from the venture should be projected.

As per personnel or manpower, it is important to determine the size and particulars of manpower as well as personnel’s job description, job titles and credential standards.  Also, salary rates and allowance should be noted.

In addition, the stability of the market determines the viability of the project.  A survey should be conducted to know if there are sufficient clients or customers and to whom the commercial venture will cater.

Of course, project should know if it is profitable. A ten or twenty percent return of investment (ROI) is usually regarded as profitable enough.

Project Proposal Methodology

Below is an example of Project Methodology excerpt from the Proposal for the Mechanical Engineering Design for PAL Fuel Tank Farm in Batangas City
By: Jose I. Hizon Jr., Carlos E. Zapanta and Melvin Panganiban


Implementation of Approach and Methodology

DOZON’s general approach to the Detailed Engineering Design of the Proposed Philippine Airlines Fuel Tank Farm project in Pinamucan, Batangas City will be basically anchored on the concept that all the project features shall adopt new and progressive technologies.  These within the domain of both international and local acceptable standard practices relating to bulk fuel storage that would encompass an effective plan formulation, detailed design and environmentally friendly construction methodology.

The proposed scope of work consists mainly of detailed mechanical engineering design and engineering support during construction.  An important start-up activity is to conduct site investigation.  A review of as built plan of the existing plant facilities and selection of appropriate construction methods and design standards shall be considered prior to the detailed engineering in order to save further on probable costs and construction time.

DOZON will conduct further detailed preliminary engineering work for the existing utilities at the site.

For this purpose, DOZON will have to use its experience in order to define the said functional requirements for the preliminary design phase.

For the next step, DOZON will define the engineering design criteria.  These criteria will be reported in the Conceptual Design Stage.  Based on DOZON’s experience, some alternative designs for each item will be studied and adapted to the existing site condition  Subsequently, the alternatives will be compared on the basis of efficiency, construction cost and maintenance requirements.

DOZON will use applicable and generally acceptable standards for design, investigation and tendering of materials, etc.  The following standards will be used in sequence of priority: Philippines, USA, Britain, Japan and other Asian countries.

The general approach to planning and technical detailing of the proposed Philippine Airlines Fuel Tank Farm Project in Pinamucan, Batangas City is to obtain pertinent information on the design standards and guidelines / practices of the governing agencies or related international aviation fuel storage.

Proposal Contractual Conditions

Chapter 3 – Contractual Conditions

3.1 General

This proposal is subject to the conclusion of a mutually satisfactory agreement defining the rights and obligations of the parties.

3.2 Responsibilities

To ensure the completion of the SERVICES within the given performance period, the CLIENT shall, immediately upon DOZON’s receipt of the Notice to Proceed with the work from the CLIENT, be responsible for the following:

  1. Providing DOZON with full information and data as to the project requirements.
  2. Providing DOZON with all available documents of the PROJECT and pertinent data, drawings/plans, reports, maps and other relevant information required for the performance of the SERVICES.
  3. Furnishing to the personnel of DOZON concerned with the PROJECT the necessary letters of authorization, clearances, permits, passes and other papers to enable them to have free access within the jurisdiction of the PROJECT.
  4. Designating the representative of the CLIENT duly authorized to deal with DOZON with respect to the PROJECT and the SERVICES.

3.3. Changes

Should the CLIENT make changes in the SERVICES to be performed, or in the basic data requirements furnished, and if such changes cause an increase or decrease in the costs, an equitable cost adjustment shall be made and DOZON shall be compensated accordingly.  Any delay or change in the schedule of the PROJECT having an impact on the cost and/or performance period of the SERVICES shall be deemed changed and shall be subject for separate compensation.

3.4   Responsibilities of DOZON

DOZON warrants that the SERVICES shall be performed by qualified personnel with skill, care and diligence and in compliance with the rules of engineering practice.  In the event that the SERVICES do not meet the terms of compliance set above, DOZON shall, at no cost to the CLIENT, rectify the deficient part of the SERVICES, if feasible, or otherwise indemnify the CLIENT for resulting damages  DOZON’s liability in this consequence shall be limited damages up to the amount received as compensation for the SERVICES directly related to this Agreement, and in all respects exclude any such liabilities relating to consequential damages, force majeure, and acts beyond DOZON’s direct control.

3.5    Termination

The AGREEMENT to be concluded between the parties may be terminated before completion of the SERVICES by either party with or without cause, but prior written notice of such termination shall be given to the other party thirty (30) days in advance.  Should such a termination be necessary, DOZON shall be fully compensated for the part of the SERVICES already performed.

In the event that after the start of the PROJECT, the CLIENT decides to terminate, abandon or shelve the PROJECT or its construction for an undetermined time, DOZON will be compensated for the SERVICES rendered from the start of the contract until pertinent papers and/or construction documents have been accomplished and turned over to the CLIENT which will take two (2) months after DOZON is informed of the termination of such PROJECT activities.

In case of any legal suit under the AGREEMENT, venue shall be at the proper courts of Manila, to the exclusion of all other venues.

3.6    Liability

DOZON shall not have any liability for loss of anticipated profits, loss of reason of PROJECT shutdown, increased expense of operation, claims by the customers of the CLIENT or by other third parties, loss of use of capital or revenue, damage to property, or for any consequential loss or damages.

The total liability of DOZON shall not exceed the contract value of the part of the SERVICES which gives rise to the claim(s).

3.7    Statement of Probable Construction Cost

Any statement of probable construction cost or any preliminary cost estimates, submitted by DOZON are accurate only up to a certain degree.  DOZON has no control over the fluctuating costs of labor and materials, or the many factors that go into competitive bidding, and DOZON shall neither guarantee nor be responsible for the resulting final project construction cost.

3.8    Measurements

Weights, measurements and dimensions shall be recorded in SI units.

3.9    Language

The official project language will be the English language.

Excerpt from the Proposal for the Mechanical Engineering Design for PAL Fuel Tank Farm in Batangas City
By: Jose I. Hizon Jr., Carlos E. Zapanta and Melvin Panganiban

Management Proposal

NCRFW Institutional Strengthening Project (NCRFW ISP) Phase II

Project Description:

The NCRFW ISP II is the second phase of partnership between CIDA and NCRFW.  The second phase of the project was re-oriented to focus on achieving an “institutionalized enabling environment in NCRFW and selected partners for gender responsive policy, planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation”.  Simply put, this means transforming government and its major processes to systematically respond to women’s needs and gender concerns.  In the long-term, government programs should reach and benefit women equally with men and improve their lives.  The strategy is called gender mainstreaming.

The project supports NCRFW itself and its work with a wide range of partners.  These include agencies and broad responsibilities throughout government (four oversight agencies, three statistical agencies and the legislature) and selected other agencies (four line agencies, seven sub-national government units and training partners).

The project was scheduled to conclude by June 2001. Given that it took longer than anticipated to develop effective working relationships and good project proposals with partners, NCRFW has been granted two extensions, the first one up to March 2002 and a second extension up to March 2004

Project Goal:

To support the full participation and integration of women in all aspects of Philippine national development by enhancing the planning and implementation capacity of NCRFW and all other key units tasked to carry out gender mainstreaming in government.

Project Purpose:

To build leadership, systems, capacity and skills in NCRFW and its partners to lead and guide the operationalization of existing government policy on gender equality;

To mainstream gender in the structures, functions, processes and systems of key government institutions, priority line agencies, selected local government units and resource networks.

Financial Proposal

Chapter 1- Compensation

DOZON shall be compensated for the performance of the services by a lump sum fee amounting to PESOS:  ONE MILLION EIGHT HUNDRED NINETY ONE THOUSAND THREE HUNDRED & 00/00 (Pph 1,891,300.00) only with the following breakdown:

-    Design of Fuel Tank, Pumping and Piping – Php 774,300.00
-    Design of Fire Protection Systems – Php 816,800.00
-    Design of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems – Php 300,200.00

Total – Php 1,891,300.00

Please note that all fees presented herewith are inclusive of the 10% Value Added Tax (VAT).

Chapter 2- Commercial Provisions

2.1 Terms of Payment

Payment for the services shall be made under normal existing and acceptable practice detailed as follows:

2.1.2 Detailed Mechanical Engineering Design Services
Four (4) Months Performance Period  including Conceptual Design Stage

40% of the total cost of services as acceptance fee upon receipt by DOZON of a written Notice to Proceed with the work from the client – Php 756,520.00

40% of the total cost of services upon submission of the preliminary design and plans – Php 756,520.00

20% of the total cost of services upon submission of the final design and plans, technical specifications, bill of quantities, and design computations – Php 378,260.00

Method of Invoicing and Payment

DOZON will submit invoices in accordance with this payment schedule.  The client will arrange for payments in respect of all fees due to DOZON within fifteen (15) days after submission of invoices.

2.3 Services and Expenses Covered

The price quoted in the Financial Proposal covers the cost for the services and related expenses in connection with the implementation of the scope of services within the specified project schedule as outlined in the Technical Proposal

2.4 Price Escalation

All quotations on this Financial Proposal do not include a provision for escalation beyond this date.

From: Proposal for the Mechanical Engineering Design for PAL Fuel Tank Farm in Batangas City
By: Jose I. Hizon Jr., Carlos E. Zapanta and Melvin Panganiban

Sample Proposal for MRT Project to Link Bulacan Edsa

Estimated Project Cost: $1.2 Billion

Timetable:  Targetted for completion by 2005

Proponents:

  • A consortium of big local and foreign investors.
  • The Manila-based development group EL International Holdings which is part of the EL group of Companies of HongKong, which has teamed up with local groups EEI Corp. of the Yuchengco family and TCGI Engineers.
  • Other partners are the Tyco International group of the United States, the world’s largest manufacturer of electrical and electronic components and global infrastructure giant Alstom of France, which are participating through respective units Earth Tech and Alstom Phils.

Objectives:

  • Make the transportation system more efficient.
  • Decongest Metro Manila of heavy traffic because of provincial buses.
  • Educate the riding public on how to deal with intermodal public transport they way it is dealt with in most major cities in the world.
  • Promote into modal transport in the subject transport zone and accelerate/ease the movement of people, goods and services, specifically: cut travel by 50-80% or more, attain efficiencies in economic and social transactions in the areas of Bulacan and between Bulacan and Metro Manila.

Medium-to-long-term objectives: to spur the development in the subject areas; partially help ease the traffic and population problems in Metro Manila, among others.

Highlights:

  • A mass railway system to link Marilao in Bulacan to Edsa-Quezon Avenue through a build-operate-transfer (BOT) project with the government.
  • One of its main features will be a bus terminal facility north of Manila in Bulacan so that provincial buses will be encouraged to drop off the passengers there and they can, then proceed to the MRT.
  • The proposed 20-kilometer MRT will begin its route from Marilao, passing through the La Mesa Dam reservoir, Fairview, Batasan, U.P. in Diliman, Philcoa and Edsa-Quezon Avenue.

* An excerpt from proposal for MRT Project