Data Presentation for a Project Proposal of Construction of Suspension Bridge

Geographical Site

The proposed site for the construction of the bridge is about thirty kilometers south of Aparri, Cagayan.  The water current at this point is weak which makes the construction suitable.  The bridge is bounded between two national roads.  At the right side is an intersection which leads to the eastern part of Cagayan.

The Advantages of a Suspension Bridge

A suspension bridge has its advantages

-    The manner of carrying  loads is highly efficient since so much of the load is carried by the cable in tension.
-    The analysis of the structure is greatly simplified because when a cable supports a load that is uniform per unit length of the cable itself, such as its own weight, it takes the form of a catenary; but unless the sag of the cable is large in proportion to its length, the shape taken may often be assumed to be parabolic

The Construction of a Suspension Bridge

The special design of the suspension bridge does not consider the stability of the river level.  It is more resistant than ordinary bridges to earthquakes.  A construction of this type of bridge the following general steps:

-   Topographic Surveying

One considers the span of the bridge and the soil conditions existing at the site where the bridge has to be constructed.

-    Engineering Design

The component parts of the bridge are designed.  This is a very complex work which is done by the qualified structural engineer after gathering the necessary data for the design.

-    Actual Construction Work

Under this phase of activity which is dependent upon the design made by the structural engineer are the salient structures to be constructed.

The Anchor

The making of the anchor depends a lot on the nature of the soil where it is going to be built.  If the soil is sandy, naturally it is not capable of holding too much tension, so that there is the need to drive tubular piles beneath the anchorsheet.  These tubular piles consists of a hallow cylindrical steel with concrete and steel bars in it.  These will help the anchor in supporting tremendous tension created by the cable.  These circumstances are applied to the proposed plan.  The western side of the river is sandy while the eastern part is rocky.  The anchor consists of steel imbedded in its concrete structure.  Its function is to lock the end of the main cable.  The making of an anchor needs a lot of time and needs a lot of calculations.  It usually takes time to build a certain type structure.  When mixed cement is poured to it, it is being filled layer by layer to ensure dryness, perfect dryness.  One of the anchors need the aide of the concrete-steel tubular piles.

The Abutments

Side spans and beams are supported by abutments.  Again, when the soil is sandy, there is the need to drive tubular piles at its bottom.  One of the abutments holds the weight of the main tower.


The towers are made of a hollow steel box about two meters wide and are joint together by gapless joints.  The erection is usually supported by cranes as temporary support.  The towers are erected first before the main cable.  When the towers are completed, a temporary steel extension is attached at the top which will hold the transporting cables.

Main Cable

The main cable consists of numerous steel strands.  The steel strands are transported from one side to the other by the use of the transporting cable.  When the number of steel strands is attained, they are tightened by the use of a twisting machine.  Sometimes, a catwalk is made from tower to tower.  These are temporary hanging ladders from the ground to the top of the tower continuously from tower to tower.

Therefore, transporting materials from one side to the other can be made manually.

Stiffening trusses

The stiffenig trusses are assembled first on the ground before they are carried through the transporting cables.  They are rigidly built that when they are attached to one another, they become a giant boom.  Aside from their strength, they are supported by vertical cables which are attached to the main cables.


When making the concrete road, it is not cemented continuously.  It is divided into segments with allowance to avoid cracking when the concrete expands.  The concrete is made up of reinforced concrete stabs.

Excerpt from Proposal to Construct a Suspension Bridge to Connect the Province of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan
By: Vener A. Villanueva

Related Study and Methodology for the Proposal of Construction of Suspension Bridge

A Proposal to Construct a Suspension Bridge to Connect the Provinces of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan by Vener A. Villanueva .

Related Study

Cable stayed bridges are constructed along a structural system which comprises a deck and continuous girders which are supported by stays or inclined cables passing over or attached to tower located at the main piers.

Wide and successful application of cable – stayed systems was realized only recently, with the introduction of high strength steel, orthotropic type decks, development of welding techniques and progress in structural analysis.  The development and application of electronic computers open up new and practically unlimited possibilities for the exact solution of these highly statistically indetermined systems and for precise statistical analysis of their dimensional performance.

Existing cable-stayed bridges provide useful data regarding design, fabrication, erection and maintenance of the new system


The researcher gathered the needed information from books, encyclopedia, periodicals and pamphlets.  He interviewed Engineer Reynaldo M.Reyes who gave additional information pertinent and relevant to the topic under discussion.

Proposal Sample for a Project of Construction of Suspension Bridge

A Proposal to Construct a Suspension Bridge to Connect the Provinces of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan

1. Introduction

Since time immemorial, people from Ilocos Norte and Cagayan have had the problem of transporting their goods from one province to the other.  To help solve this perennial problem of transportation between two places, a suspension bridge connecting them should be constructed.  The completion of this bridge is the dream of President E. Marcos and many motorist and traders.

1.1     Statement of the Problem

To initiate the realization of the dream of President Ferdinand E. Marcos and many motorist and traders, the writer presents A PROPOSAL TO CONSTRUCT A SUSPENSION  BRIDGE TO CONNECT THE PROVINCES OF ILOCOS NORTE AND CAGAYAN.  Specifically, the paper answers the following questions:

1.1.1.    Where is the geographical site of the propose suspension bridge?
1.1.2.    What are the advantages of constructing a suspension bridge?
1.1.3.     How is it constructed?

1.2     Importance of the Study

This study is significant.  The construction of a suspension bridge connecting Ilocos Norte and Cagayan will hasten  the economic development of the northern part of the country.

1.3     Definitions of Terms Used

To facilitate the understanding of the discussion, the writer deemed it necessary to define the following terms:

1.3.1  Catenary

Catenary is the curve in which a frictionless uniform or a perfectly flexible uniform cable hangs between two fixed points.

1.3.2 Girders

Girders are segments of the span joined with each other to give the proper stiffening of the main span.

1.3.3    Span

The span of the bridge means the longest horizontal structure which consists of a steel and a concrete slab

1.3.4    Three-span suspension bridge

This is the most common form of a suspension bridge. It is composed of side spans and the main span that lie between them.  The most common form of span is that in which the main cable is continued from the tower over the side span which is suspended from cables in the same way as the main span.  In such cases, the cables are often anchored at the outer ends of the side span at deck level and are effectively unrestrained.

1.3.5    Anchor

The anchor of a suspension bridge lies on the extremities of the span.  It is composed of a massive structure consisting of concrete and steel frames.

1.3.6    Tower

A tower is a structure designed primarily for elevation that is higher than its diameter and high relative to its surroundings.  The purpose of the tower is to support the cable.

An excerpt from a technical report of Vener A. Villanueva .

Management Aspect Feasibility Study for Snack Stand

The central idea of management is to make every action or decision help achieve a careful chosen goal.

The word management is also used to mean the group of persons called executives who perform management activities.


1.    To keep the subordinates be alert to what is expected to them.
2.    To know the duties and responsibilities of each member and personnel.
3.    To know different strategies to be able to achieve the company’s goal.

Description of Activities

1.    DTI Permit Application

The business name of GF Snack Stand should be register with the Department of Trade and Industry.  It would take only four days to five days before the permit is receive.  If there as no other name of its type.

Three (3) different name should be apply so when one is approved, so they can use other applied business name (see appendix)

2.    Rental Space

The project business will be located at Bataan terminal at 2nd floor Ibayo, Balanga City, Bataan.  The application will only about three to four weeks before it is approved.

3.    Mayor’s Permit

The Mayor’s Permit application will acquire the submission of the following:

a.    SSS Clearance Permit
b.    Sanitary Permit
c.    DTI
4.    TAN (Tax Account Number)

The project business will be registered at the Bureau of Internal Revenue District Office No. (1020) located at Capitol drive, San Jose, Balanga City.  The following forms should be accomplished with necessary attachments.

BIR FORM No.  Attachment Required, Mayor’s Permit and DTI Permit

5.    Buying of machineries and equipment

Involves the acquisition of the necessary machinery and equipment in the food snack as mentioned in technical aspect.

6.    Promotion

Includes advertising and personal selling partnership in a variety of promotional activities to inform customer about products and service and to encourage them to buy.

7.    Start of Operation

After securing all the necessary permits and other needed materials.  The said will be now ready to operate.

C. Organizational Structure

Through GF Snack Stand is just a simple business, the organization structure will have a simple flow.  It is not as complicated as big ventures.

Over – All manager / Cashier
Cook 1, Cook 2
Utility Man 1, Utility Man 2

D. Personnel Structure

The GF Snack Stand is required to have the members of personnel and service crew.

Staff – Over all Manager – 1
Cashier – 1
Cook – 2
Utility Man – 2

E. Duties and Responsibities

1.    Over-all Manager / Cashier
-    Supervise the overall operation of the business
-    Computer the total amount of the purchased item
-    Assist the customers

2.    Cook 1
-    Prepares the necessary ingredients
-    Cooks the items/products

3.    Cook 2
-    Prepares the necessary ingredients
-    Cooks the item/products

4.    Utility Man 1
-    In charge of cleaning the workplace
-    Delivers items within the vicinity
-    In charge of buying raw materials from suppliers
-    In charge of the inventory

5.    Utility Man 2
-    In charge of cleaning the workplace
-    Delivers items within the vicinity
-    In charge of buying raw materials from the suppliers
-    In charge of the inventory

Excerpt from Management Project by Arde R. Reyes

Technical Aspect Feasibility Study for Snack Stand

The technical aspect helps to determine the capacity of the project.  The technical study will provide information in service activity and the raw materials to be used in providing activity this product as well as their resources.  It is also determine the utilities and equipment to be acquired in showing the location and layout of the project.


1.    To know the business should be located.
2.    To find how to improve more in the business and also in the product.
3.    To know how to use properly the equipment and machinery.

Plant Lay out

The plant lay out show the size of a firm.  Lay out shows the different angel of the firm and the lay out is the guide for the worker who made a difficult firm.

Plant Location

The business will be situated at Common Terminal at Barangay Ibayo, Balanga City, Bataan beside the Isaac and Catalina medical center.  The common terminal is a very busy place where a great number of people come to go  The GF Snack Stand is situated on the second floor of the terminal.

The business was agreed to be situated at the said location because of its suitability for the targeted market.  Researchers suggested that the kind of business is very much profitable in the said place.  The partnership believes that the business can serve more customers in the area compared to other places.  The said location is very much accessible to students, employees, office workers, businessmen and common terminal passengers and also for those who are roaming around the three (3) malls.

Excerpt from Management Project by Arde R. Reyes

Business Feasibility Study – Snack Stand

A. Name and Address of the Business

The GF Snack Stand (Good Food Snack Stand) is proposed to be located at the 2nd floor of the Bataan Common Terminal, Ibayo, Balanga City, Bataan.

B.    Nature  Business

The GF Snack Stand offers a wide variety of snacks and beverages.  It caters the need of the persons in transit and others who are waiting for their ride home in the said common terminal.  It also provide hip and soothing music to those who are weary from work and school.

The menu mainly consists of chicken, ham, ham and egg and hotdog sandwiches, fishballs, kikiam, squidballs, french fries and juices such as gulaman and pineapple juice.

The said snack stand is open Mondays through Sundays from 7:00 AM to 7:00 PM.

Management Aspect

1.    What are the roles and responsibilities of each personnel?
2.    What are the different strategies were going to use in order to cope up with the competition?
3.    How can we cope up with the competition?

Financial Aspect

1.    How much will be the total cost of the project?
2.    How much is the contribution of each member?
3.    How much profit were going to earn this kind of project?

Socio-Economic Aspect

1.    How can the business contribute to the reduction of unemployment?
2.    How can the business contribute to the community?
3.    How can the business contribute to the economy?

Excerpt from Management Project by Arde R. Reyes

Proposal Writing Tips and Strategies

Writing proposal can be tedious job but if you will know the steps of writing proposal, it can never be difficult.  The first step in writing a proposal is defining the project by establishing proposal title.  Also, it is need to identify the agency as well as find out guidelines and deadlines.  Write down preliminary material. In addition, perform literature search and also consider writing the first draft of full proposal.

Some parts to consider in writing proposal are introduction, problem statement, objectives, methodology, evaluation if necessary, dissemination, future funding, budget, appendices, abstract and curriculum vitae. Not all proposals require these parts but most of them are required by agency.

The following are some tips and strategies in writing proposal:

  • Make use of outline formats and records to break up narrative texts.
  • Do not use vague languages like might, could, ought, should, hope, will, may, it appears, consider.
  • Don’t think that the reader is familiar with the subject.
  • Prevent using unsupported arguments.
  • Avoid impossible promises.
  • Include illustrations or visuals to explain abstract concepts and relationships.
  • Proofread and review proposal over and over again and let someone to proofread it to see opinion of others.
  • Proposal should be organized, readable, grammar free and without missing page and also consider overall appearance such as cleanliness.

Proposal Training Program

A Proposal Training Program in Consumer Behavior for the Employees of ABC Corporation

I.    Rationale

A.    Situation of marketing in relation to consumer behavior
B.    Existing problem of marketing about consumer behavior
C.    Factors that affects consumer behavior

1.    Internal Factors
(a)    Perception
(b)    Motivation
(c)    Learning
(d)    Attitudes
(e)    Personality

2.    Social Influences
(a)    Family
(b)    Reference
(c)    Social Class
(d)    Culture and subculture

D.    Contributions of the behavioral sciences to marketing.

E.    Aim/Purpose of the proposed training program on consumer behavior

II.    General Objectives

  • to have a better understanding and knowledge regarding consumer behavior, its concepts, dynamics and implications that are useful in formation, production, innovation of products for the advancement of the corporation.

III.    Specific Objectives

  • to identify and explain the complexities and dynamics of buyer behavior.
  • to apply these knowledge in marketing decision making and sales training procedure.
  • to critically evaluate business decisions from behavioral science perspective.
  • to enhance important skills set including analytical and critical thinking in producing products in the market.
  • to individuality and collectively analyze and solve complex marketing problem with an emphasis to consumer behavior.
  • to know the concepts and implications of consumers in order to produce a new technique or strategies in marketing.

IV.    Strategies and Methodologies

A.    Planning Phase

  1. Selecting of some employees from marketing department who will serve as a participant in the training program.
  2. Pre evaluate of the employees status and understanding on consumer behavior.
  3. Orientation of the employees for the training program.

B.    Implementation

  1. Presentation of lectures, seminars, and workshop regarding consumer behavior.
  2. Application of the learning in the marketing.
  3. Post evaluation of performance of the employees after one month.

V.    Workplan

VI.    Budgetary Requirements

System Feasibility Study

In the field of computer and technology, there always an option to automate things likes payroll system, inventory system, lighting system, and sales system.  But of course, before the automation of any system, a feasibility study should be conducted in order to see the benefits of automation over manual system as well as other alternatives.

At first, you should study the organizational systems such as the users, policies, functions and objectives. Consider also the problems existing over the present systems like redundancies, inconsistencies and slow services. Also, know the constraints such as the nonfunctional requirement.

After analyzing the present or current system, possible alternatives should be presented.  Sticking to the current or present system is always an alternative. Different types of automation or computerization and business processes are considered to solve the existing problems. Advantages and disadvantages of each alternative should be discussed.

In addition, the computation of payback analysis, net present value analysis, and return on investment analysis should be included in your feasibility study.

If there is a feasibility study, the best alternative is to be preferred by the management because there a chance of comparing alternative. Feasibility study will determine the best solution to the problems.  After all, feasibility study is written to assess each alternative and come out of the best alternative that will benefit the intended users.

How to Write a Good Business Plan

It is essential to all business to write a business plan whether you’re starting a new business venture or applying for a business loans but also business plan is also important for running a business for reaching business goals.  A successful business man will keep their business plan handy during the course of their business and review it monthly to monitor business growths.  Business is just like human life, if you don’t have plans and goals, you will end up nothing.  Business plan is your road map for your business success because you will able to examine business development.

Here are some points in writing a good business plan.

  • Executive Summary. Outline business goals and objectives.  You will include your business strategy.
  • Company History.  Explain clearly the history or how the business starts.
  • Company Goals. Define short and long term business goals.  Also, state your primary customers.
  • Company Organization. Give details for management team such as names and backgrounds of members as well as their respective responsibilities.
  • Company service or product to be offered. Discuss your product or services to be offered and how it differs from others on the market.
  • Market Potential of services or product to be offered. Convince lenders, employees and others that your market is large and growing.
  • Marketing Strategy. Include your marketing strategy such as how to advertise your business whether online marketing or TV ads or Web ads.
  • Business Financial Projection. A three or five year financial projection is essential to include. Discuss the summary of your financial forecasts such as the spreadsheets showing formula used to reach your projections.  Also, you will need balance sheets, income statements, break-even analysis, cash flow projections, assumptions and business ratios.